علم جدید هیدرولوژی اجتماعی: در جستجوی درک مفهوم هم‌تکاملی انسان و آب

نوع مقاله: یادداشت فنی (5 صفحه)

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری آبیاری و زهکشی، گروه علوم و مهندسی آب، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

2 استاد گروه مهندسی آب دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

3 مرکز پژوهشی آب و محیط زیست شرق (EWERI)

چکیده

امروزه برهمکنش‌هایی میان جوامع بشری و چرخه‌ی هیدرولوژیکی در حال رخ دادن می‌باشد که در گذشته هرگز مشاهده نشده است. بازخوردها و برهمکنش‌های میان سیستم‌‌های انسانی و هیدرولوژیکی نشان می‌دهد که فعالیت‌های انسانی منجر به ایجاد پیوستگی قوی میان بشر و سیستم‌های هیدرولوژیک شده و اثرات مثبت و منفی توسعه‌ی سیستم‌های اجتماعی از طریق تصمیم‌گیری‌های مدیریتی بر سیستم‌های هیدرولوژیکی بازتاب می‌یابند. اگرچه پیوند میان فعالیت‌های بشری و آب در "سیستمی از برهمکنش متقابل" سالیان مدیدی است که شناخته شده، تا‌کنون درک کمّی از بازخوردها، برهمکنش‌های دوسویه و مفهوم تکامل و هم‌تکاملی در سیستم‌های پیوسته میسر نشده است. این شرایط منجر به پیدایش علم جدید «هیدرولوژی اجتماعی» با هدف درک «پویایی و هم‌تکاملی سیستم‌های پیوسته‌ی انسان ـ آب» گردید. در واقع هیدرولوژی اجتماعی، مطالعه‌ی سیستم‌های پیوسته‌ی انسان ـ آب مبتنی بر هم‌تکاملی سیستم‌های اجتماعی و هیدرولوژیکی می‌باشد که در آن چگونگی وقوع بازخوردها و برهمکنش‌های متقابل مورد تجزیه و تحلیل قرار می‌گیرد. هیدرولوژی اجتماعی، شکل‌یافته در چارچوب‌های اقتصاد و سیاست، مرزهای علم هیدرولوژی را به‌سمت پذیرش انسان به‌عنوان جزئی یکپارچه با چرخه‌ی هیدرولوژی سوق داده و پیشرفت‌ جدیدی در علم هیدرولوژی محسوب می‌شود که نیاز به بازاندیشی در خصوص این دانش را ایجاد می‌نماید.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

New Science of Socio-hydrology: In Search of Understanding Co-evolution of Humans and Water

نویسندگان [English]

  • Shiva Gholizadeh-Sarabi 1
  • Bijan Ghahraman 2
  • Mojtaba Shafiei 3
1 PhD Student, Department of Water Engineering, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
2 Department of Water Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
3 East Water and Environmental Research Institute (EWERI)
چکیده [English]

Nowadays, such interactions between humans and hydrologic cycle are occurring that has never previously been observed. Feedbacks and interactions between human and hydrological systems show that anthropogenic activities have led to a strong coupling between them and both positive and negative impacts of social developments can affect on hydrological system via management decisions. Although the fact that man and water are linked through a “system of mutual interaction” has been recognized for many years, there has not been quantitative understanding of feedbacks, two-way interactions and evolution and co-evolution concepts of coupling systems yet. These conditions have led to the emergence of a new science of "socio-hydrology" with the aim of understanding "the dynamics and co-evolution of coupled human-water systems", in 2012. Indeed, socio-hydrology is the study of coupled human-water systems based on co-evolution of social and hydrological systems, which analyzes how two-way feedbacks and interactions occur in these systems. Socio-hydrology, that is shaped by economic and policy frameworks, has led the boundaries of hydrology to accept human as an integrated part of the hydrological cycle and represents new advancement in hydrological science, which requires further rethinking.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Socio-hydrology
  • Dynamics
  • Co-evolution
  • Coupled human-water systems
Blair P, Buytaert W (2016) Socio-hydrological modelling: a review asking “why, what and how?”. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 20:443-478

Blöschl G, Sivapalan M (1995) Scale issues in hydrological modelling: a review. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 9:251-290

Carpenter SR, Stanley EH, Vander Zanden MJ (2011) State of the world's freshwater ecosystems: Physical, chemical, and biological changes. Annual Review of Environment and Resources 36:75‐99

Chang H, Thiers P, Netusil NR, Yeakley JA, RollwagenBollens G, Bollens SM, Singh S (2014) Relationships between environmental governance and water quality in a growing metropolitan area of the Pacific Northwest, USA. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 18:1383-1395

Chen X, Wang D, Tian F, Sivapalan M (2016) From channelization to restoration: Socio-hydrologic modeling with changing community preferences in the Kissimmee River Basin. Water Resources Research 52:1227-1244

Crépin AS (2007) Using fast and slow processes to manage resources with thresholds. Environmental and Resource Economics 36:191-213

Di Baldassarre G, Viglione A, Carr G, Kuil L, Yan K, Brandimarte L, Blöschl G (2015b) Debates-perspectives on socio hydrology: Capturing feedbacks between physical and social processes. Water Resources Research 51:4770-4781

Elshafei Y (2016) The co-evolution of people and water: modelling framework for coupled socio-hydrology systems and insights for water resource management. PhD Thesis, School of Earth and Environment, University of Western Australia

Fabre J, Ruelland D, Dezetter A, Grouillet B (2015) Simulating past changes in the balance between water demand and availability and assessing their main drivers at the river basin scale. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 19:1263-1285

Falkenmark M (1977) Water and mankind: A complex system of mutual interaction. Ambio 6:3-9

Falkenmark M (1979) Main problems of water use and transfer of technology. GeoJournal 3:435-443

Fraser ED, Simelton E, Termansen M, Gosling SN, South A (2013) Vulnerability hotspots: Integrating socioeconomic and hydrological models to identify where cereal production may decline in the future due to climate change induced drought. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 170:195-205

Global Water Partnership (2000) Integrated water resources management. TAC Background Papers No 4, pp 22, Stockholm: GWP Secretariat

Harou JJ, Pulido-Velazquez M, Rosenberg DE, MedellínAzuara J, Lund JR, Howitt RE (2009) Hydro-economic models: Concepts, design, applications, and future prospects. Journal of Hydrology 375:627-643

Hurford AP, Huskova I, Harou JJ (2014) Using many-objective trade-off analysis to help dams promote economic development, protect the poor and enhance ecological health. Environmental Science and Policy 38:72-86

Kandasamy J, Sounthararajah D, Sivabalan P, Chanan A, Vigneswaran, S, Sivapalan M (2014) Socio-hydrologic drivers of the pendulum swing between agricultural development and environmental health: a case study from Murrumbidgee River basin, Australia. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 18:1027-1041

Kelly (Letcher) RA, Jakeman AJ, Barreteau O, Borsuk ME, ElSawah S, et al. (2013) Selecting among five common modelling approaches for integrated environmental assessment and management. Environmental Modelling and Software 47:159-181

Lane SN (2014) Acting, predicting and intervening in a sociohydrological world. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 18:927-952

Linton J, Budds J (2013) The hydrosocial cycle: Defining and mobilizing a relational-dialectical approach to water. Geoforum 57:170-180

Liu D, Tian F, Lin M, Sivapalan M (2015a) A conceptual sociohydrological model of the co-evolution of humans and water: case study of the Tarim River basin, western China. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 19:1035-1054

Liu Y, Gupta H, Springer E, Wagener T (2008) Linking science with environmental decision making: experiences from an integrated modeling approach to supporting sustainable water resources management. Environmental Modelling and Software 23:846-858

Medellín-Azuara J, Howitt RE, Harou JJ (2012) Predicting farmer responses to water pricing, rationing and subsidies assuming profit maximizing investment in irrigation technology. Agricultural Water Management 108:73-82

Norgaard RB (1981) Sociosystem and ecosystem coevolution in the Amazon. Journal of Environmental Economics and Management 254:238-254

Norgaard RB (1995) Beyond materialism: A coevolutionary reinterpretation of the environmental crisis. Review of Social Economy 53:475-492

Peel MC, Blöschl G (2011) Hydrologic modelling in a changing world. Progress in Physical Geography 35(2):249-261

Postel SL (2011) Foreword–sharing the benefits of water. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 56:529-530

Reed P, Kasprzyk J (2009) Water resources management: The myth, the wicked, and the future. Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management 135:411-413

Rodriguez-Iturbe I (2000) Ecohydrology: A hydrologic perspective of climate-soil-vegetation dynamics. Water Resources Research 36:3-9

Savenije HHG, Hoekstra AY, van der Zaag P (2014) Evolving water science in the Anthropocene. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 18:319-332

Scott C, Vicuña S, Blanco-Gutiérrez I, Meza F, VarelaOrtega C (2013) Irrigation efficiency and water-policy implications for river-basin resilience. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 18:1339-1348

Sivakumar B (2012) Socio-hydrology: not a new science, but a recycled and re-worded hydrosociology. Hydrological Processes 26:3788-3790

Sivapalan M (2015) Debates-perspectives on socio-hydrology: Changing water systems and the tyranny of small problems- socio- hydrology. Water Resources Research 51:4795-4805

Sivapalan M, Konar M, Srinivasan V (2014) Socio-hydrology: Use-inspired water sustainability science for the Anthropocene Earth’s Future. Earth’s Future 2:225-230

Sivapalan M, Savenije HH G, Blöschl G (2012) Sociohydrology: A new science of people and water. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 26:1270-1276

Srinivasan V (2015) Reimagining the past- use of counterfactual trajectories in socio-hydrological modelling: the case of Chennai, India. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 19:785-801

Srinivasan V, Lambin EF, Gorelick SM, Thompson BH, Rozelle S (2012) The nature and causes of the global water crisis: Syndromes from a meta-analysis of coupled human-water studies. Water Resources Research 48:W10516

Swyngedouw E (2009) The political economy and political ecology of the hydro-social cycle. Journal of Contemporary Water Research and Education 142:56-60

Troy TJ, Pavao-Zuckerman M, Evans TP (2015b) Debates perspectives on socio-hydrology: Socio-hydrologic modeling: Tradeoffs, hypothesis testing, and validation. Water Resources Research 51:4806-4814

Vitousek PM, Mooney HA, Lubchenco J, Melillo JM (1997) Human domination of Earth's ecosystems. Science 277(5325):494-499

Vörösmarty CJ, McIntyre PB, Gessner MO, Dudgeon D, et al. (2010) Global threats to human water security and river biodiversity. Nature 467:555-56