چالش‌های همکاری قلمرویی در بهره‌برداری از منابع آب زیرزمینی مشترک: با روش نظریه‌‌ی داده‌بنیاد

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 پژوهشگر، مرکز بین المللی قنات و سازه های تاریخی آبی

2 استاد گروه جغرافیای انسانی، دانشکده جغرافیا، دانشگاه تهران

3 دانشیار گروه جغرافیای انسانی، دانشکده جغرافیا، دانشگاه تهران

چکیده

این مقاله به نقش منابع آب مشترک در شکل‌گیری همکاریی‌های قلمرویی می‌پردازد و به این منظور، حوضه‌ی ابرکوه، در مرز میان استان‌های یزد و فارس، به عنوان مطالعه‌ی موردی برگزیده شده است. در این حوضه، روستاهای بالادست و پایین دست از یک سفره‌ی آب زیرزمینی مشترک بهره می‌برند. تا اواخر دهه‌ی 1350، رابطه‌ی نظام‌مندی میان اجتماعات بالادست و پایین دست برای بهره‌برداری از منابع آب مشترک برقرار بوده است. این رابطه‌ی نظام‌مند، ریشه در توزیع جغرافیایی منابع زیستی و افتراق معیشتی داشته است. اما اکنون همکاری، جای خود را به رقابت و کشمکش‌های اجتماعی داده است که در نهایت به تخریب منابع آب زیرزمینی مشترک منجر می‌گردد. این تحقیق با روش نظریه‌ی داده‌بنیاد تلاش می‌کند تا به این پرسش، پاسخ دهد که چگونه و تحت چه شرایطی، منبع آب مشترک می‌تواند به بستری برای همکاری و تعامل نظام‌مند تبدیل شود و چگونه ممکن است تعامل نظام‌مند تبدیل به تقابل رقابت آمیز ‌گردد؟
بر اساس مطالعات میدانی انجام شده، تفاوت‌های جغرافیایی در بالادست و پایین‌دست حوضه، امکانات متفاوتی را در اختیار اجتماعات انسانی مستقر در این مناطق قرار داده است. این امکانات متفاوت به ایجاد و توسعه‌ی نظام‌های اقتصادی متفاوت منجر می‌گردد که ما برای نشان دادن این وضعیت، اصطلاح "افتراق معیشتی" را به کار برده‌ایم. افتراق معیشتی به نوبه‌ی خود مبنای بهره‌برداری مسالمت آمیز از منابع آب مشترک بوده‌است. اما برنامه‌های اجتماعی و اقتصادی برون‌زا در طول دهه‌های گذشته به همراه تغییرات اقلیمی منجر به حذف افتراق معیشتی شده و در نتیجه همکاری جای خود را به رقابت داده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Challenges of Territorial Cooperation on Common Groundwater Resources: through Grounded Theory

نویسندگان [English]

  • Majid Labbaf Khaneiki 1
  • Mohammad Reza Rezvani 2
  • Seyyed Ali Badri 3
1 Researcher, International Center on Qanats and Historic Hydraulic Structures
2 Professor, Faculty of Geography, University of Tehran
3 Associate Professor, Faculty of Geography, University of Tehran
چکیده [English]

This paper examines the role of shared water resources in establishing territorial cooperation. To do so, the Abarkooh basin which lies on the border between the Yazd and Fars provinces has been singled out as our case study. Across this basin, the upstream and downstream villages all exploit a common groundwater reserve. Until the late 1970s, the exploitation of the common groundwater took place based on a systematic relationship between the basin’s upstream and downstream, which was associated with geographical distribution of vital resources and livelihood differentiation. However, the traditional cooperation has turned into competition and social tension, which contribute to the destruction of their shared water resource. This study has deployed the research method of grounded theory in order to answer the questions: how the shared water resource can serve as the groundwork for systematic interaction and cooperation, and under what conditions such systematic interaction may turn into a competitive confrontation. According to our field studies, the geoghraphical difference between the basin upstream and downstream led to the different possibilities accessed by the human communities in both areas. The same different possibilities gave rise to the creation and development of different economic systems under a condition to which we refer as livelihood differentiation. Livelihood differentiation in turn paved the way for the cooperative exploitation of the shared water resources. However, over the past decades, the exogenous socio-economic programs along with the climate change impaired the livelihood differentiation so that the traditional cooperation was replaced by competition.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Territorial Cooperation
  • Groundwater
  • Shared water resources
  • Geographical diversity
  • Livelihood differentiation

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