توسعه عملکرد روش‌های نوین با استفاده از بهینه‌سازی چند هدفه در کنترل رواناب شهری

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار گروه مهندسی آب و سازه های هیدرولیکی، دانشکده مهندسی عمران، دانشگاه سمنان، سمنان

2 دانشجوی دکترا، مهندسی و مدیریت منابع آب، دانشکده مهندسی عمران، دانشگاه سمنان، سمنان

3 استادیار گروه مهندسی آب و سازه های هیدرولیکی، دانشکده مهندسی عمران، دانشگاه سمنان

چکیده

در این مطالعه، جهت کنترل رواناب ناشی از سیلاب در حوضه‌های شهری از بهینه‌سازی روش‌های بهینه مدیریتی(BMP) و روش‌های توسعه با حداقل اثرات جانبی(LID) به‌عنوان روش‌های نوین استفاده‌شده است. مدل‌سازی هیدرولیکی و هیدرولوژیکی توسط نرم‌افزار SWMM انجام پذیرفته است و با الگوریتم چندهدفه ژنتیک (NSGAII) به‌عنوان بهینه‌ساز تلفیق‌شده است. توابع هدف شامل هزینه‌ی ساخت و اجرا (سرمایه‌گذاری) و بهره‌برداری سازه‌های روش‌های نوین، میزان حجم سیلاب در سطح حوضه، میزان بار آلاینده‌ها در خروجی حوضه در نظر گرفته شد. منطقه موردمطالعه حوضه شهری عظیمیه واقع در شهر کرج استان البرز می‌باشد.در این پژوهش پنج نوع سازه با متغیرهای مساحت و نوع سازه، به الگوریتم ژنتیک معرفی گردید و این الگوریتم متناسب با شرایط هر 67 زیر حوضه ازنظر نوع کاربری، ترکیبی مناسب از چندین سازه در کنارهم با مساحت‌های بهینه را به‌عنوان راه‌حل‌ها ارائه می‌دهد؛ و در آخرجهت ارزیابی NSGAII ، با تعریف هفت سناریو، مقایسه انجام گردید. نتایج نشان داد با اجرای راه‌حل ارائه شده توسط NSGAII، مقادیر کمیت و کیفیت سیلاب به ترتیب به میزان 41 و 23 درصد کاهش می‌یابند. در ادامه‌ی نتایج مشاهده شد اجرای سازه‌های مهار و کنترل سیلاب به‌صورت مجزا تنها می‌تواند تأمین‌کننده یکی از اهداف باشد و انتخاب بهینه‌ای ارائه شده توسط NSGAII نیست. ترکیب انواع سازه‌های با یکدیگر و انتخاب مساحت مناسب برای هر یک از آن‌ها با توجه به نوع کاربری هر زیر حوضه، می‌تواند در مقایسه با استفاده مجزا و مستقل هر یک از این سازه‌ها عملکرد مناسبی داشته باشد. همچنین مشخص شد که هزینه بیشتر دلیل بر کارایی بیشتر نمی‌باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Developing the Performance of Modern Methods Using Multi-Objective Optimization in Urban Runoff Control

نویسندگان [English]

  • Saeed Farzin 1
  • Hamed Noori 2
  • Hojat Karami 3
1 Assistant Professor, Department of Water Engineering and Hydraulic Structures, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Semnan University, Semnan, Iran.
2 PhD. Student, Department of Water Engineering and Hydraulic Structures, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Semnan University, Semnan, Iran.
3 Assistant Professor, Department of Water Engineering and Hydraulic Structures, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Semnan University, Semnan, Iran.
چکیده [English]

In this study the Best Management Practices (BMPs) and Low Impact Development (LID) was employed to control quality and quantity of runoff due to urban flooding. The hydraulic and hydrological models of urban runoff were simulated by the Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) and combined with None-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm (NSGAII). Three objective function were defined included: minimize the cost of BMP (Investment) in dollar, minimization of runoff volume over the catchment in m3, and minimization of pollutant load contain TSS (Total Suspended Solid) and Pb in kg at external node (Karaj River). The urban catchment studied was part of the northeast of Karaj City namely Azimiyeh located in Alborz Province. In this research five types of BMP-LID structures were defined to NSGA-II with various types and areas and this algorithm combine types of BMP-LID with considering land use of the 67 sub-catchments and produce solutions. Finally, seven scenarios were defined to assess the NSGA-II. The results shown: that by applying the solution obtained by NSGAII in study area, quantity and quality of flood, decreased by 41% and 23%, respectively. Also, the use of BMP-LID structures in separated form only could provide one of objective functions and not an optimal choice. The use of BMP-LID structures in combination form with appropriate area and considering land use of sub-catchments can be having good performance compared to separated mode. As well as, higher cost does not result in more efficiency, especially in the flood quantity discussion.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Urban runoff management
  • Genetic Algorithm
  • SWMM
  • GIS
  • LID-BMP

Abi Aad M, Suidan M, Shuster W (2010) Modeling techniques of best management practices: rain barrels and rain gardens using EPA SWMM 5. Journal of Hydrologic Engineering 15:434-443

Badiezadeh S, Bahremand A, Dehghani A, Noura N (2015) Urban flood management by simulation of surface runoff using SWMM model in Gorgan city. Journal of Water and Soil Conservation 22(4):156-170 (In Persian)

Baek S, Dongho C, Jaewoon J, Hyungjin L, Hyuk L, Kwangsik Y, Kyunghwa C (2015) Optimizing low impact development (LID) for stormwater runoff treatment in urban area in Korea. Journal of Water Research 1:1-10

Elliot A (2014) Model for preliminary catchment scale planning of urban storm water quality controls. Journal of Environmental Management 52:273-288

Huber W, Dickinson R (1992) Stormwater management model, version 4. Environmental research laboratory, office of research and development. US environmental protection agency, Athens, GA, 789p

Imani S, Delavar M, Niksokhan M (2017) Simulation and assessment of management practices for reduction of nutrients discharge to the Zrebar lake using SWAT model. Iran-Water Resources Research 13(1):69-87 (In Persian)

FAVA (2016) Information technology and commu-nication organization of Karaj municipality

Iqbal H, Imteaz M (2011) Application of buildup and washoff models for an east-Australian catchment. International Journal of Environmental, Chemical, Ecological, Geological and Geophysical Engineering 5(3):200-211

Jia H, Yao H, Yu S (2013) Advances in LID-BMPs research and practice for urban runoff control in China. Journal Environmental Science and Engineering 7(5):709-720

Jia H, Lu Y, Yu S, Chen Y (2012) Planning of LID-BMPs for urban runoff control: the case of Beijing Olympic village. Journal of Separation and Purification Technology 8(4):112-119

Jia, H, Yao H, Tang Y, Yu S, Field R, Tafuri A (2015) LID-BMPs planning for urban runoff control: the case study in China. Journal of Environmental Management 149:65-76

Karami M, Ardeshir A, Behzadian K (2016) Hazard management of inundation and pollutants in urban floods using optimal conventional and novel strategies. Iran-Water Resources Research 11(3):100-112 (In Persian)

Karamouz M, ASCE F, Nazif S (2013) Reliability-based flood management in urban watersheds considering climate change impacts.  Journal of Water Resource Planning Management 120:520–523

Karamouz M, Nazif S, Zahmatkesh Z (2014) Self-organizing gaussian-based downscaling of climate data for simulation of urban drainage systems. Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering 139(2):98–112

Lai F, Dai T, Zhen J, Riverson J, Alvi K, Shoemaker L (2007) Sustain an EPA BMP process and placement tool for urban watersheds. Proceedings of the Water Environment Federation, USA, 946-968

Lee J, Selvakumar A, Alvi K, Riverson J, Zhen J, Shoemaker L, Lai F (2012) A watershed-scale design optimization model for stormwater best management practices. Journal of Environmental Modelling & Software 37:6–18

Mazandaranizadeh H (2016) Drainage system design by NSGA-II multi-objective algorithm using economic and environmental approach. Iran-Water Resources Research 12(3):142-152 (In Persian)

Modugno M, Gioia A, Gorgoglione A, Iacobellis V, Forgia G, Piccinni A, Ranieri E (2015) Buildup/washoff monitoring and assessment for sustainable management of first flush in an urban area. Journal of Sustainability 7:5050-5070

Moeini R (2015) Performance evaluation of the ant colony optimization algorithm for the optimal operation of a multi-reservoir system: comparing four algorithms. Iran-Water Resources Research 11(2):29-46 (In Persian)

Oraei Zare S, Saghafian B, Shamsai A (2012) Multi-objective optimization for combined quality–quantity urban runoff control. Journal of Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 16:4531-4542

Saadatpour M, Delkhosh F, Khalili R (2016 a) Simulation and optimization of management solutions in improving the quality of runoff with regard to economic considerations. (1251P-NWWCE), 14–15 February, University of Tehran, Iran (In Persian)

Saadatpour M, Khalili R (2016 b) Optimization of low-impact development techniques based on economic considerations for improving runoff quality. 15–16 November, University of Tehran, Iran (In Persian)

Strecker E, Sheffield A, Cristina C, Leisenring M (2010) Stormwater BMP guidance tool. Geosyntec consultants Press, USA, 142p

Yaoze L, Raj C, Vincent F, Indrajeet C, Laura C, Bernard A (2016) Optimal selection and placement of BMPs and LID practices with a rainfall-runoff model. Journal of Environmental Modelling & Software 80:281-296

Young K, Dymond R, Kibler D (2011) Development of an improved approach for selecting storm-water best management practices. Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management 137:268-275