بهینه سازی مدیریت آب بر مبنای رهیافتهای حقوق بشر

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

استادیار/گروه حقوق بین الملل، دانشکده حقوق و علوم سیاسی، دانشگاه خوارزمی، تهران، ایران

چکیده

نیاز به آب به عنوان یک عنصر حیاتی برای بشر، دسترسی به آب را به عنوان یک حق در زیر سایه حقوق بشر قرار می دهد. این حق که در پرتو حق حیات و سلامت شکل گرفته است، امروزه به عنوان حقی مستقل با وصف حقوق بشری مطرح می گردد که با تکیه بر آثار گسترده خود ارائه دهنده رویکردی نوین در حکمرانی و مدیریت آب می باشد. در واقع حقوق بشر با تحمیل تعهد به دولتها موجد الزاماتی است که مدیریت آب را به منظور تامین و تضمین این حق تحت تاثیر قرار داده و زمینه ساز تحول در اصول کلی حاکم بر این حوزه می باشد. در این رابطه جنبه ایجابی حقوق بشر در مقام احترام و اعمال حق آب و جنبه سلبی در مقام حمایت از این حق و جلوگیری از نقض آن از طریق مدیریت مناسب آب ظاهر می شود. براین اساس، نوشتار حاضر در صدد است با مطالعه مدیریت آب در چارچوب حقوق بشر، ضمن تحلیل ارتباط میان این دوحوزه، از رهیافتهای حقوق بشر به منظور شاخص سازی و ارائه اصول کلی در بهینه سازی مدیریت آب و تبیین ضرورت آن بهره گیرد. در انجام این پژوهش با بررسی منابع کتابخانه ای و اینترنتی از روش توصیفی- تحلیلی استفاده شده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Improving Water Management Based on Human Rights Approaches

نویسنده [English]

  • R. Seyed Morteza Hosseiny
Assistant professor, International law, Faculty of Law and Political Science, Kharazmi University
چکیده [English]

The importance of water as a vital element for the humanity puts the Access to water as a right in the shadow of human rights. This right that formed in the light of the rights to life and health and become an independent right provides a new approach to the governance and water management in accordance with its widespread effects. In fact human rights leading to the imposition binding obligations on the states which effect to the water management by creating the requirements to ensure the water rights and underlie the evolution of general principles governing water management that includes negative and positive aspects. The positive aspects in the exercise of the right to water and negative aspect in the protection of this right and Prevention of violation through appropriate management of water. This article seeks to study on water management in the light of human rights in the purpose of creating relationship between these two issues and gets help from human rights approach to the improving the water management and explain its necessity. This study is based on descriptive and analytical methods according to the library and internet data.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • "Right to Water"
  • "Human Rights Requirements"
  • "Access to Water"
  • "Protection of Water Resource"
  • "National Legislation"

A)      Books and Articles

Baillat A, Schmitz T, Szabó M (2015) Towards a human rights based water governance: challenges for the post 2015 thematic consultations on water. Water Lex International Secretariat, 1-24

Bluemel EB (2005) The implications of formulating a human right to water. Ecology Law Quarterly 31:957-1006

Caponera D (1992) Principles of water law and administration:  national and international. 2nd Edition revised and updated by Marcella Nanni Taylor & Francis Group, UK, 279 p

Caponera D (2003) National and international water law and administration. Selected writing Hague Kluwer law, 414p

Cassar A, Scanlon J and Nemes N (2004) Water as a human right? Gland. Switzerland and Cambridge UK: IUCN, 1-53

Cullen P (2011) Water law in a globalized world: the need for a new conceptual framework. Journal of Environmental Law 23:233-54

De Albuquerque C and Roaf V (2012) The right track- good practices in realizing the rights to water and sanitation.  Bettina Myers, Lisbon, 221p

De Albuquerque C (2010) Commented UN independent expert on human rights obligations related to access to safe drinking water and sanitation, 21p, Available at:  http://www.ohchr.org/EN/Pages/Home.aspx

Echeverria J (2013) A legal blow to sustainable development. the New York times, The Opinion Pages

Eslami R (2015) The right to water is a human rights. Shargh Newspaper No.2335 Available at: http://www.sharghdaily.ir/News/66841 (In Persian)

Fahmi H (2017) From water crisis to the guideline for the management. Available at: http://iaeo. org/ardebil/?p=2672 (In Persian)                                                                                                                                                  

Gupta J, Rhodante A and Lawal A (2010) The human right to water: moving towards consensus in a fragmented world. Review of European Community & International Environmental Law 19(3), 12p 

Heller L (2015) Report of the special reporter on the human right to safe drinking water and sanitation. seventieth session of General Assembly A/70/203, Available at: http://www.un.org/en/ga/search/ view_doc.asp?symbol=A/70/203

Iza A, Stein R (2009) Rule reforming water governance. International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. Gland, Switzerland, 126p

Khalfan A (2012) Development cooperation and extraterritorial obligations. In Langford Russell, M (eds.), The right to water: theory, practice and prospects. Cambridge University Press, UK, 33p

 McIntyre O (2014) The human right to water as a "creature" of global administrative law. In critical international law: post realism, post colonialism, and transnational’s.  New Delhi Oxford University Press, 654-669

Meier BM, Georgia LK, Urooj A, Jamie B (2013) Implementing an evolving human right through water and sanitation policy. University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill 15:116-133

Meier BM, Georgia LK, Kestenbaum J, Urooj A, Fernanda D, Bartram J (2014) Translating the human right to water and sanitation into public policy reform. Springer,16p

  Schreiber W (2008) Realizing the right to water in international investment law: An interdisciplinary approach to bit obligations. Natural Resources Journal 48:431-478

Sharifi Tarazkoohi H (2003) International human rights norms and processing the international legal system.  Legal Research Journal 7:17-24 (In Persian)

Shawkat A, Sumudu A, Carmen G, Gonzalez JR (2015) International environmental law and the global south. Cambridge University Press, New York, 631p

Singh N (2016) The human right to water: from concept to reality. Springer, Switzerland, 238p

Staddon C, Appleby T, Grant E (2012) A right to water? Geographic legal perspectives. In Sultana F, Loftus A (eds.) Right to water: politics, governance and social struggles. Rutledge, London, 19-44

Stoa R (2014) Subsidiary in principle: decentralization of water resources management. Utrecht Law Review 10(2):31-45

B)     DOCUMENTS

De Albuquerque C (Special reporter on the human right to safe drinking water and sanitation) (2014) The 69th  session of the General Assembly Third Committee, http://www.ohchr.org/EN/NewsEvents/Pages/DisplayNews.aspx?NewsID=15230&LangID=E#sthash.sc6jvAml.dpuf

Dublin statement on water and sustainable development 31 January (1992) Dublin Ireland International conference on water and the environment, Available at http://www.un-documents.net/h2o-dub.htm

General comment No. 15:  The right to water 20 January (2003) Twenty-ninth session of the committee on Economic Social and Cultural Rights (E/C.12/2002/11), 19p, Available at http://www.refworld.org/docid/4538838d11.html

Human rights and access to safe drinking water and sanitation resolution (2010) (A/HRC/15/L.14, 24/9/2010), 4p

Johannesburg plan of implementation of the world summit on sustainable development (2002) South Africa

United Nations millennium declaration 18 September (2000) United Nations General Assembly Resolution (A/RES/55/2), Available at: http://www.un.org/ millennium/declaration/ares552e.pdf

Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) (2015) Principles water governance, 23p, Available at https://www.oecd. org/gov/regional-policy/OECD-Principles-on-Water-Governance-brochure.pdf

Paris declaration water and sustainable development International Conference 19–21 March (1998) Available at: http://www.waternunc.com/gb/ decfingb.htm

Pricing water resources and water and sanitation services Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (2010) OECD Publishing, 104p

Resolution on human right to water and sanitation (2010) UN General Assembly Res (A/64/292), Available at http://www.un.org/es/comun/docs/?symbol=A/RES/64/292&lang=E

Water Lex declaration on international water law (2012) Commitments derived from human rights obligations