چالش‌های تقنینی در مدیریت خشکسالی در حقوق ایران

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش‌آموخته کارشناسی ارشد حقوق عمومی، دانشکده حقوق و علوم سیاسی دانشگاه مازندران.

2 استادیار گروه حقوق دانشکده حقوق و علوم سیاسی، دانشگاه مازندران. مازندران، بابلسر، دانشکده حقوق و علوم سیاسی، گروه حقوق.

چکیده

با توجه به تکرار خشکسالی در ایران و تشدید آثار آن در دهه‌­های اخیر، قانونگذار ایران در برخی قوانین به تنظیم برخی قواعد حقوقی در زمینه این مخاطره طبیعی پرداخته است. با این حال بنا به دلایل چندی رویکرد تقنینی قانونگذار نسبت به مدیریت خشکسالی برخی اشکالات اساسی دارد که شکل‌­گیری یک نظم حقوق مشخص و سازنده در مدیریت این پدیده را ناممکن می‌­سازد. این مقاله با بررسی عناصر پنجگانه لازم برای ارائه الگویی مطلوب در قانونگذاری برای مدیریت خشکسالی از رویکرد حقوق بحران­‌های طبیعی نتیجه می­‌گیرد که اولاً خشکسالی هنوز تبدیل به یک مسأله حقوقی برای قانونگذار نشده است و قوانین تصویب شده بطور کاملاً ناقص و گذرا نسبت به این پدیده واکنش نشان داده‌­اند، دوم اینکه قوانین موجود راهکارهای مقتضی و سازنده برای پیشگیری، کاهش آثار، نهادسازی و تصریح صلاحیت‌ها و جبران مناسب خسارت‌­های ناشی از خشکسالی ارائه نکرده‌­اند و این امر می‌­تواند مانع مدیریت اصولی و مؤثر خشکسالی‌های آینده شود.  

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Legislative Challenges in Drought Management in Iranian Law

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mojtaba Lakzehi Moghaddam 1
  • Masoud Faryadi 2
1 Public Law Graduate, Faculty of Law and Political Sciences, University of Mazandaran, Babolsar, Iran.
2 Assistant Professor, Faculty of Law and Political Sciences, University of Mazandaran, Babolsar, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Due to the frequency of drought in Iran and acceleration of its impacts during the last decades, Iranian legislator has enacted some laws to control the droughts. However, this kind of legislative approach to the management of drought faces some challenges that hinder establishment of a determinant and constructive legal order in this field. Introducing five elements of a suitable model for legislation in drought management, the article found out that firstly the drought has not yet been problematized as a legal matter for the country’s legal system and the current laws regarding the drought have addressed it in a deficient and haphazard manner. Secondly the current body of laws have not provided appropriate legal mechanisms for prevention, mitigation, adaptation, institutionalization and empowerment, and compensation of drought which makes the country vulnerable to future droughts. To overcome these challenges some legal reforms are needed. One of the necessary steps is enactment of a comprehensive law on drought management to address these deficits and also integration of drought management into the related laws like the development plan laws to achieve a comprehensive and collaborated legal order in management of this natural disaster. 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Drought
  • Natural Disasters Law
  • drought mitigation
  • water law
  • Drought Management
  • drought regulations
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