موانع حقوقی حکمرانی آب در ایران؛ با نگاهی بر قانون توزیع عادلانه آب

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 کارشناس ارشد حقوق محیطزیست، مشاور حقوقی و کارشناس رسمی دادگستری، کانون کارشناسان رسمی دادگستری استان تهران.

2 دانشیار دانشکده حقوق، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی

چکیده

نتایج بررسی‌های جامع و گسترده کشورها و سازمان‌های بین‌المللی مرتبط، حاکی از آن است که قوانین ناکارآمد و نامتناسب با چالش‌های موجود و فقدان آینده‌نگری توأم با نگاه پایدار به منابع طبیعی سرزمین، از مهم‌ترین موانع در حرکت بر مسیر حکمرانی خوب است. در چنین مواردی، اصلاحات قانونی فرصتی برای بهبود شرایط ارائه می‌دهد. بر همین اساس و در چند دهه اخیر، بسیاری از کشورها با سطوح مختلف توسعه‌یافتگی و مسائل گوناگون در موضوع آب، ضمن بازنگری در قوانین قدیمی و یا تدوین قوانین جدید مبتنی بر اصول و ارزش‌های حکمرانی خوب بر بستر دموکراسی و با هدف دستیابی به توسعه پایدار، سعی در مدیریت بهتر منابع آبی داخلی و یا مشترک خود با هدف جلوگیری از تبدیل چالش‌های موجود به تنش‌های آتی داشته‌اند. این در حالی است که ارزیابی تطبیقی- تاریخی قانون توزیع عادلانه آب مصوب سال 1361 به عنوان قانون حاکم بر نظام مدیریت آب کشور و اصل چهل‌وپنجم قانون اساسی که مرجع تنظیم آن بوده مبین آن است که تثبیت مالکیت و اقتصاد دولتی بر این اصل و آن قانون، مبتنی بر قوانین و اندیشه‌های نظام‌های سوسیالیستی، دارای تعارض ماهوی با ارزش‌های بنیادین دموکراسی و از موانع قانونی برای حرکت در مسیر حکمرانی و مدیریت کارآمد و مؤثر بر منابع آبی سرزمین است و با تجْری قانون مذکور، حصول به توسعه پایدار در این حوزه متصور نیست.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Legal Barriers to Water Governance in Iran; With an Overview of the Law of Equitable Distribution of Water

نویسندگان [English]

  • Sadegh Jamali 1
  • Mohsen Abdollahi 2
1 Master in Environmental Law, Legal Advisor and Justice Official Expert, Tehran Province Official Expert Organization, Tehran, Iran.
2 Associate Professor, Faculty of Law, University of Shahid Beheshti, Tehran, Iran.
چکیده [English]

The results of comprehensive and extensive studies of countries and related international organizations indicate that inefficient and disproportionate laws with the existing challenges and lack of foresight with a sustainable view of the natural resources, are the most important obstacles to moving towards good governance. In such cases, legal reform provides an opportunity to improve the situation. Accordingly, in recent decades, many countries with different levels of development and various issues in the field of water, while reviewing the old laws or formulating new laws based on the principles and values ​​of good governance in the context of democracy and with the aim of achieving sustainable development Have tried to better manage their internal or shared water resources in order to prevent the transformation of existing challenges into future tensions. Meanwhile, the comparative-historical evaluation of the Law of Fair Distribution of Water approved in 1982 as the law governing the country's water management system and the forty-fifth principle of the Constitution, which was the reference for its regulation, shows that the consolidation of state ownership and economy on this principle and that law, Based on the laws and ideas of socialist systems, has a quiddity conflict with the fundamental values ​​of democracy and is one of the legal obstacles to move in the direction of governance and effective management of the country's water resources. The results of the present article shows that with the implementation of the law of Fair Distribution of Water, sustainable development in this area is not conceivable and it is necessary to adopt a new law based on the principles of good governance.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Water Governance"
  • . "
  • Ownership Right"
  • Free Economy"
  • democracy"
  • "
  • Socialism"
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