نقش هنجارهای اخلاقی در مدیریت مشارکتی منابع آب محدوده توشن استان گلستان

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری مهندسی منابع آب، گروه علوم و مهندسی آب، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه بیرجند.

2 دانشیار گروه علوم و مهندسی آب، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه بیرجند.

3 عضو هیات علمی گروه پژوهشی مهندسی محیط زیست و پایش آلاینده ها، پژوهشکده محیط زیست و توسعه پایدار، سازمان حفاظت محیط زیست، تهران، ایران.

چکیده

فهم هنجارهای اخلاقی برای درک بحران آب و داشتن رفتار حفاظت از آب، در جامعه امروزی ضرورت دارد. هدف تحقیق، توسعه تئوری رفتار برنامه‌ریزی­شده و کمّی­سازی مؤلفه­های آن به­منظور ارزیابی هنجارهای اخلاقی حاکم بر مدیریت مشارکتی منابع آب بوده است. در این پژوهش از ابزار پرسشنامه برای جمع­آوری اطلاعات استفاده شد. آمار توصیفی- استنباطی تحقیق با نرم­افزارهای SPSS و SmartPLS و آزمون ویلکاکسون تک­نمونه­ای تحلیل و سپس مؤلفه­های مدل با آزمون فریدمن رتبه­بندی گردید؛ در انتها عدم­قطعیت مؤلفه­های تئوری رفتار برنامه­ریزی­شده­ تکامل ­یافته با تکنیک بوت­استرپ محاسبه گردید. نتایج تحقیق نشان داد افزودن مؤلفه اخلاقی به تئوری برای ارتقای رفتارهای مشارکتی حفاظت از آب دارای اهمیت می­باشد. باتوجه به نمودارهای باکس­پلات و ضرایب مسیر مدل، اکثر پاسخگویان تعهد اخلاقی بالایی به مشارکت در حفاظت از آب دارند که نشان می­دهد آن­ها خود را در قبال منابع آب محلی مسئول می­دانند. همچنین، سطح پذیرش اجتماعی پاسخگویان به گزینه سیاستی بهره­برداری مشارکتی منابع آبی بالاتر از سطح میانی بوده و باند عدم­قطعیت پذیرش اجتماعی برای مؤلفه­های تحقیق حکایت از هماهنگی درون‌سطحی در قبال اتخاذ گزینه سیاستی بهره­برداری مشارکتی آب دارد. نتایج مدل ساختاری نشان می­دهد متغیرهای MTPB به ترتیب 70.1، 75.9، 81 و 79.2 درصد از واریانس رفتارهای مشارکتی حفاظت از آب بهره­برداران شرب توشن، شرب گلند، کشاورزی توشن و کشاورزی گلند را تبیین می­کنند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Role of Moral Norms in Participatory Management of Water Resources in Toshan of Golestan Province

نویسندگان [English]

  • Behnaz Yazarloo 1
  • Ali Shahidi 2
  • MohammadReaza Farzaneh 3
1 Ph.D. Student of Water Resources Engineering, Department of Water Science and Engineering, College of Agricultural, University of Birjand, Birjand, Iran.
2 Associate Professor, Department of Water Science and Engineering, College of Agricultural, University of Brigand, Birjand, Iran.
3 Research Group of Environmental Engineering and Pollution Monitoring, Research Center for Environment and Sustainable Development, RCESD, Department of Environment, Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran.
چکیده [English]

Recognizing the moral norms is necessary to understand water crisis and have water protection behavior in today’s society. The aim of this research was to develop the theory of planned behavior and quantification of its components in order to assess the moral norms governing the participatory management of water resources. A questionnaire was used to collect information from Toshan and Galand villages. Descriptive-inferential statistics of the research were analyzed by SPSS and SmartPLS softwares and One-Sample Wilcoxon Nonparametric test. Then model components were ranked using Friedman test. At the end, the uncertainties of the components of the Modified Theory of Planned Behavior (MTPB) were calculated by the bootstrap technique. The results showed that adding the moral norm component to the theory is important for promoting participatory behaviors of water conservation. According to the boxplot graphs and model path coefficients, most respondents had a high moral commitment to participate in water conservation, which shows that they consider themselves responsible for local water resources. Also, the level of social acceptance of the respondents to the policy option of participatory exploitation of water resources was above the middle level and uncertainty band of social acceptance for the research components indicated the intra-level coordination towards the adoption of the policy option of participatory exploitation of water. The results of the structural model showed that the MTPB variables, respectively, explain 70.1%, 75.9%, 81% and 79.2% of the variance of the participatory behaviors of water conservation of stakeholders of Toshan drinking, Galand drinking, Toshan agriculture and Galand agriculture.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • water crisis
  • Local Participation
  • Modified Theory of Planned Behavior
  • Protection of water resources
  • Uncertainty
Abadi B, Jalali M, Musavi SB (2017) The path analysis of water conservation behavior in agricultural sector and revivification of Lake Urmia: The case of farmers in southern basin of Lake Urmia. Iran Agricultural Extension and Education Journal 13(2):251-268
Ajzen I (1991) The theory of planned behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 50(2):179-211
Arvola A, Vassallo M, Dean M, Lampila P, Saba A, Lahteenmaki L, Shepherd R (2008) Predicting intentions to purchase organic food, the role of affective and moral attitudes in the theory of planned behaviour. Appetite 50(2):443 -454
Castillo GML, Engler A, Wollni M (2021) Planned behavior and social capital: Understanding farmers’ behavior toward pressurized irrigation technologies. Agricultural Water Management 243(c):1-12
Chan L, Bishop B (2013) A moral basis for recycling: Extending the theory of planned behaviour. Journal of Environmental Psychology 36(4):96-102
Chaudhary AK, Warner L, Lamm A, Israel G, Rumbele N, Cantrell A (2017) Using the theory of planned behavior to encourage water conservation among extension clients. Journal of Agricultural Education 58(3):185-202
Clark WA, Finley JC (2007) Determinants of water conservation intention in Blagoevgrad, Bulgaria. Society and Natural Resources 20(7):613-627
Eskandari F, Karimi Z, Khaledi KH (2018) Influence of extension training programs on water conservation behavior by farmers (The case of Zaloo-ab farmers in Ravansar). Iran-Water Resources Research 14(1):170-183 (In Persian)
Farzaneh MR, Moghaddasi M, Badreh M, Abdolhosseini M, Fakhri M, Paymazd SH (2020) Pathology of barriers related to the formation of watershed organizations based on social boundaries in Arak plain aquifer. Final Report on Water Resources Management Company Markazi Province Regional Water Authority Applied Research Plan, 107p (In Persian)
 Hensler J, Ringle CM, Sinkovics RR (2009) The use of patial least squares path modeling in international marketing. Advances in International Marketing 20:277-319
Hosseini Z, Aghamolaei T, Gharlipour Gharghani Z, Ghanbarnejad A (2015) Effect of educational interventions based on theory of planned behavior to promote breakfast consumption behavior in students. Hormozgan Medical Journal 19(1):31-39
Huangh ChCh, Chen TH (2015) Moral norm and the two-component theory of planned behavior model in predicting knowledge sharing intention: A role of mediator desire. Psychology 6(13):1685-1699
Jafarzadeh J (2015) Generalization of Bootstrap method in control charts. International Conference on Modern Research in Management and Industrial Engineering, 30November, Tehran (In Persian)
Kaiser FG (2006) A moral extension of the theory of planned behaviour norms and anticipated feelings of regret in conservationism. Personality and Individual Differences 41(1):71-81
Kaiser FG, Scheuthle H (2003) Two challenges to a moral extension of the theory of planned behavior Moral norms and just world beliefs in conservationism. Personality and Individual Differences 35(5):1033–1048
Lee JS, Lee MH, Chun YY, Lee KM (2018) Uncertainty analysis of the water scarcity footprint based on the aware model considering temporal variations. Water 10(3):341
Liu J, Dorjderem A, Macer D, Fu J, Lei X, Liu H, Qiao Q, Yu L, Zheng Y, Amy S (2011) Water ethics and water resource management. Ethics and Climate Change in Asia and the Pacific (ECCAP) project, working group 14 report, UNESCO, Thailand, Bangkok
Mennatizadeh M, Zamani GHH (2018) Causal analysis of farmers water protective behaviors case study Khoram-Abad county. Iran-Water Resources Research 14(3):103-117 (In Persian)
Mennatizadeh M, Zamani GHH, Karami E, Hayati D, Zibaei M (2018) Analysis of farmers moral development in agricultural water resources use the Case of Khoramabad county. Agricultural Extension and Education Journal 14(1):69-89 (In Persian)
Mennatizadeh M, Zamani GH (2016) Water ethics theoretical analysis of moral development theories. Indian Journal of Fundamental and Applied Life Sciences 6(2):413-428
Pino Giovanni, Toma Pierluigi, Rizzo Cristian, Miglietta Pier Paolo, M.Peluso Alessandro, Guido Gianluigi (2017) Determinants of farmers’ intention to adopt water saving measures: Evidence from Italy. Sustainability 9(1):77
Rahimi Fayzabad F, Yazdanpanah M, Forouzani M, Mohammadzadeh S, Bourton R (2016) Determining the factors affecting farmers water conservation behavior in Selsele township, application of the norm activation model. Iranian Journal of Agricultural Economics and Development Research 47-2(2):379-390 (In Persian)
Rezaei Moghaddam K, Vatankhah N, Ajili A (2020) Adoption of pro-environmental behaviors among farmers application of Value–Belief– Norm theory. Chemical and Biological Technologies in Agriculture 7(7)
Rouhani H, Ghandi A, Seyedian SM, Kashani M (2017) Uncertainty analysis of rainfall projections (case study, Bojnourd and Mashhad synoptic gauge station). Journal of Water and Soil Conservation  24(1):189-204 (In Persian)
Russell S, Fielding K (2010) Water demand management research: A psychological perspective. Water Resources Research 46(5):1-12
Tran V (2017) Mont Carlo simulation and Bootstrap. Machine Learning in Medecine project The MLM. https://rstudio-pubs-static.s3.amazonaws.com/248504_48d73ff9a5c94a73923a9b0a4337c11c.html
USF (1999) Theory of reasoned action theory of planned behavior. Community and Family Health, University of South Florida
Valizadeh N, Hayati D, Rezaei Moghaddam K, Karimi Gougheri H (2018) Application of the planned behavior theory in ethical analysis of water conservation behavior. Bioethics Journal 8(27):33-48 (In Persian)
Warner LA, Lamm AJ, Rumble JN, Martin ET, Cantrell R (2016) Classifying residents who use landscape irrigation implications for encouraging water conservation behavior. Environmental Management 58(2):238–253
Yazdanpanah M, Hayati D, Zamani GHH (2011) Investigating agricultural professional’s intentions and behaviours towards water conservation using a modified theory of planned behavior. Environmental Sciences Journal 9(1):1-22 (In Persian)