ارزیابی چندشاخصه گروهی رژیم‌های غذایی با لحاظ سلامت و کاهش ردپای آب

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 فارغ التحصیل کارشناسی ارشد مهندسی عمران- محیط‌زیست دانشگاه تبریز و پژوهشگر همکار کمیته آب پژوهشکده مطالعات فناوری ریاست جمهوری

2 هیات علمی دانشگاه تبریز و هیات علمی مدعو دانشگاه صنعتی شریف

چکیده

مسئله افزایش جمعیت و نیازهای جمعیتی ازجمله نیاز به غذا و تقاضای آب، نیاز به تدوین و اجرای راهکارهای سیاستی مبتنی بر کاهش فشار بر منابع آب را ضروری می‌نماید بخصوص که بحث امنیت غذایی و اتخاذ سیاست خودکفایی در محصولات استراتژیک موردتوجه برنامه‌های بالادستی کشور بوده ‌است. یکی از راهکارهای مؤثر، بهره‌گیری از رژیم غذایی کم ‌آب‌بر می‌تواند باشد. از طرفی نیز نظر بر برخی کمبودها در رژیم غذایی فعلی کشور؛ لزوم تغییر آن و طراحی رژیم سالم و پایدار که توامان ارتقای سلامت جامعه و کاهش اثرات محیط‌زیستی آن (مانند میزان ردپای کمتر آب) را به‌دنبال داشته باشد، ضرورت پیدا می‌کند. در این مطالعه، رژیم غذایی فعلی همراه با سه رژیم جایگزین به کمک تصمیم‌گیری چندشاخصه گروهی با در نظر گرفتن شاخص‌های سلامتی (میزان انرژی و پروتئین دریافتی از رژیم)، آثار محیط‌زیستی (ردپای آب)، هزینه اقتصادی رژیم برای خانوار و پذیرش اجتماعی رژیم مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفته و درنهایت رژیم مطلوب و تأثیر آن معرفی شده است. همچنین در جهت لحاظ عدم قطعیت برخی از داده‌ها نظیر قیمت اقلام غذایی و ایجاد اعداد تصادفی از ابزارهایی نظیر قضیه حد مرکزی بهره گرفته شده است. از مهم‌ترین خروجی این مطالعه، می‌توان به ضعف رژیم غذایی فعلی نسبت به سایر رژیم‌های غذایی از منظرهای محیط‌زیستی، سلامتی و اقتصادی اشاره کرد. همچنین نتایج نشان داد که با طراحی رژیم‌هایی می‌توان هم در جهت بهبود سلامت و هم در جهت کاهش مصرف آب قدم نهاد که تحقق امنیت غذایی در کشور را به‌دنبال داشته باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Multi-criteria Group Decision Making of Dietary Patterns Considering Health Promotion and Reducing Water Footprint

نویسندگان [English]

  • Arash Taghipour Zarei 1
  • Mahdi Zarghami 2
1 MSc graduate from the University of Tabriz and Researcher at Technology Studies Institute
2 Faculty member at the University of Tabriz and adjunct professor at the Sharif University of Technology
چکیده [English]

Population growth and population needs, including the need for food, necessitates the development and implementation of policy solutions based on reducing the pressure on water resources. Especially when the notion of food security and self-sufficiency policies for strategic commodities have been the focus of attention in higher policies of the country. One of the most effective solutions is to use a diet that has low water demand. On the other hand, considering some deficiencies in the current diet of the country; it is necessary to change it and design a healthy and sustainable diet that simultaneously promotes the health of the community and reduces its environmental effects (such as water footprint). In this study, the current dietary pattern and three alternative food baskets are evaluated by the multi-criteria group decision-making taking into account criteria including health (energy and protein intake from the diet), environment (water footprint), the economic cost of the diet, and social acceptance of the diet. Finally, the desired dietary pattern and its effects are introduced. Also, to analyze the uncertainty of some data, such as the price of products, and to create random numbers, tools such as Central Limit Theorem have been used. One of the most important outcomes of this study is the weakness of the current diet compared to other diets from environmental, health, and economic perspectives. The results also showed that designing diets, while improving health, can lead to an annual reduction in water consumption, which can lead to food security in the country.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Water- Food Nexus
  • Food Security
  • water footprint
  • Sustainable and Healthier Diet
Abdi F, Atarodi Kashani Z, Mirmiran P, Estaki T (2015) Study and comparison of food consumption pattern in Iran and the world: a review article. Journal of Fasa University of Medical Sciences 2(5):159-167
Agricultural Planning, Economic and Rural Development Research Institute (APERDRI) (2015) National program for upgrading the national production capacity. Technical Report (In Persian)
Aleksandrowicz L, Green R, Joy E, Smith P, Haines A (2016) The impacts of dietary change on greenhouse gas emissions, land use, water use, and health: A systematic review. Plos One Journal 11(11):1-16
Anbari  M J, Cheraghi R, Zarghami M (2012) Comparison of cloud seeding methods with group Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM). In: 9th International Congress on Civil Engineering, 8-10 May, University of Isfahan
Cables Pérez E, García-Cascales M S, Lamata M (2008) The use of different norms in the TOPSIS decision making method. In: 8th International FLINS Conference 623- 628
FAO (1996) World food summit. Rome Declaration on World Food Security and World Food Summit Plan of Action, Rome, Italy
FAO (2006) Food security policy brief. Technical Report
FAO (2014) The water-energy-food nexus; A new approach in support of food security and sustainable agriculture. Technical Report
FAO STAT (2019) Retrieved from http://www.fao.org/faostat/en/#home
García S, Green R, Scheelbeek P, Harris F, Dangour A (2020) Dietary recommendations in Spain affordability and environmental sustainability. Journal of Cleaner Production 254:1-14
Gephart J, Davis K, Emery K, Leach A, Galloway J, Pace M (2016) The environmental cost of subsistence: Optimizing diets to minimize footprints. Science of The Total Environment 553:120-127
Hoekstra AY, Chapagin AK, Aldaya MM, Mekonnen MM (2009) The water footprint assessment manual. Earthscan Press, 228p
Iran Fisheries Organization )2017) Statistical Yearbook (2011-2015). Technical Report (In Persian)
Islamic-Iranian models of progress (2015) Experiences of countries in food security, water management and environmental protection and natural resources. Technical Report (In Persian)
Islamic Parliament Research Center (2015) The role of strategic water technologies document in solving the challenges of the country's water sector. Technical Report (In Persian)
Islamic Parliament Research Center (2015) Water footprint account in some selected products: green, blue and gray water footprint in production and consumption. Technical Report (In Persian)
Karandish F, Hoekstra AY (2017) Informing national food and water security policy through water footprint assessment: The case of Iran. Water 9(831):1-25
Mekonnen M M, Hoekstra AY (2011) National water footprint accounts: The green, blue and grey water footprint of production and consumption. In Value of Water Research Report Series
Ministry of Agriculture and Forests of Bhutan (2010) Food security and food self-sufficiency in Bhutan. Technical Report
Ministry of Agriculture -Jahad (2017) Agricultural statistics of the crop year (2015-2016). Technical Report (In Persian)
Mirzaei F, Morid S, & Dehghanisanij H (2020) Reducing water footprints through healthy and reasonable changes in diet and imported products. Sustainable Production and Consumption 23:30-41
Pahlow M, van Oel P, Mekonnen MM., Hoekstra AY (2015) Increasing pressure on freshwater resources due to terrestrial feed ingredients for aquaculture production. Science of The Total Environment 536:847-857
Pourkazemi M and Soozandeh M (2009) Determination of food basket for various income groups by using fuzzy logic. Journal of Economic Research 87(2):53- 74
Salehi F, Abdollahi Z, Abdollahi M (2013) Good food basket for the Iranian community. Ministry of Health and Medical Education. Technical Report (In Persian)
Searchinger T, Waite R, Hanson C, Ranganathan J, Dumas P, Matthews E (2019) World resources report: Creating a sustainable food future. Technical Report
Secretariat of the Supreme Water Council  (2019) Session on  formulate a joint action plan for self-reliance of agricultural products and sustainability of water resources. Technical Report (In Persian)
Sobhani SR, Rezazadeh A, Omidvar N, & Eini Zinab H (2019) Healthy diet: A step toward a sustainable diet by reducing water footprint. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 99(8):3769-3775
Statistical Center of Iran (2020) Average prices of selected food items. Retrieved from https://www.amar.org.ir
Vanham D, Mekonnen M M, Hoekstra A (2013) The water footprint of the EU for different diets. Ecological Indicators 32:1–8
Yager R (1988) On ordered weighted averaging aggregation operators in multicriteria decisionmaking. IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man and Cybernetics 18:183-190
Yager R (1996) Quantifier guided aggregation using OWA operators. International Journal of Intelligent Systems 11(1):49-73
Yin J, Yang D, Zhang X, Zhang Y, Cai T, Hao Y, Cui S, Chen Y (2020) Diet shift: Considering environment, health and food culture. Journal of Science of The Total Environment 719:1-13
Zarghami M, Ehsani I (2011) Evaluation of different group multi-criteria decision making methods in selection of water transfer projects to Urmia Lake Basin. Iran- Water Resources Research 7(2):1-14 (In Persian)
Zarghami M, Szidarovszky F (2011) Multicriteria analysis. Applications to Water and Environment Management, Springer Heidelberg Dordrecht London New York 172p
Zarghami M, Szidarovszky F, Ardakanian R (2008) A fuzzy-stochastic OWA model for robust Multi-Criteria Decision Making. Fuzzy Optimization & Decision Making 7:1-15
Zarghmi M (2007) A revised ordered weighted operator under fuzzy and probabilistic uncertainties- An application in ranking the water resources development projects in Iran. PhD. Thesis, Department of Civil Engineering, Sharif University of Technology (In Persian)