نظام حقوقی حاکم بر مالکیت آب‌ (با نگاهی به حقوق فرانسه و آمریکا)

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار / گروه حقوق و علوم سیاسی دانشگاه یزد، یزد، ایران

2 دانشجوی دوره دکتری حقوق خصوصی/دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران.

چکیده

قانون مدنی تحت تأثیر فقه امامیه، در موضوع مالکیت آب، این مایع حیاتی را مباح و واجد قابلیت تملک خصوصی دانسته است. این در حالی است که در سال 1347 جهت کنترل بهره‌برداری بی‌رویه از منابع آب، قانون آب و نحوه ملی شدن آن تصویب شد و ضمن نفی مالکیت خصوصی آب، مالکیت عمومی آن را پذیرفت. در همین راستا، دغدغه‌های حفظ مصالح عمومی و منافع ملی پس از انقلاب اسلامی قانونگذار را بر آن داشت تا اصل 45 قانون اساسی را به شناسایی ثروت‌های ملی اختصاص دهد. در این اصل کلیه آب‌ها جزو ثروت ملی معرفی شد و تعیین تکلیف آن‌ها در اختیار حکومت اسلامی قرار گرفت. سپس در مقام اجرای این اصل، قانون توزیع عادلانه آب در سال 1361 وضع گردید و مالکیت عمومی منابع آب را تثبیت کرد. تکثر و بعضاً تعارض قوانین موجود در این زمینه سبب شده که نظام حقوقی مالکیت آب در هاله‌ای از ابهام قرار گرفته و نظریات گوناگونی راجع به آن ارائه شود. با هدف رفع این ابهام، در این مقاله به شیوه‌ای توصیفی و تحلیلی به بررسی نظام حقوقی حاکم بر مالکیت آب در حقوق ایران با مطالعه‌ای تطبیقی در فقه امامیه و حقوق فرانسه پرداخته شده است. نتایج این پژوهش نشان می‌دهد که امروزه در کشور ما نیز همانند فرانسه، نظام مالکیت آب از حوزه‌ی حقوق خصوصی خارج شده و با نسخ مقررات مربوطه از قانون مدنی توسط قوانین مؤخر التصویب، این مایع ارزشمند در زمره‌ی مشترکات درآمده است، لذا حقوق حاکم بر آن را باید زیرمجموعه‌ی حقوق عمومی دانست.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Legal System of Iranian Water Ownership (Looking at French and American Law)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Aliakbar Jafari nadoushan 1
  • Abolfazl Shahin 2
1 Assitant professor at department of law and political sciences of yazd university. Email: Jafari nadoushan @ yazd .ac.ir
2 Ph.D. Student of Private Law of University of Tehran.
چکیده [English]

The Iranian civil code under the influence of Fiqh-e-Imamiyyah, accepts the possibility of private ownership of water. Nevertheless, in order to control of overexploitation of water resources The Law of Water and Its Nationalization in 18 July 1968. In this law, while abandoning the private ownership of water, the public ownership of this vital fluid was accepted. In the same way, the concerns of maintaining public and national interests after the Islamic Revolution caused the enactment of article 45 of Constitution. In this article the water was recognized as a public wealth that shall be being at the disposal of the Islamic government to utilize in accordance with the public interest. Afterwards, in order to enforcing of this article, the law of the law of Fair Water Allocation was passed in 7 March 1983 and has stabilized the public ownership of water. The plurality and sometimes the conflicts of the legal texts of this domain has been led to ambiguity of the legal system of ownership of water resources and to disagreements. This article is aimed to examination of legal system of water resources ownership with a comparative study in Fiqh-e-Imamiyyah and French law. The results of this research shows that such as France, the water is a sort of public goods in Iranian law system. Consequently, instead of regarding the law of water as a matter of private law that is able to be a subject of private ownership, it should be considered as a subject of public law.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • anfal
  • Common property and Public goods
  • Law of Fair Distribution of Water
  • Law of Water and Its Nationalization
  • Mubahat
Al-Amili M (1990) Al-lomat al-dameshqiyah. Dar-al-Turath-Dar-al-Islamiyyah, 287p (In Arabic)Al-Amili Z (1992) Rowzat al-bahiyah fi sharh al-lomat al-dameshqiyah. Office of Islamic publications, Vol. 2 815p (In Arabic)Hussayni Al-Amili M J (1998) Miftah al-karamah. Office of Islamic Publications, Vol 19, 900p (In Arabic) Badisar S N, Ahmadi M S (2017) Water rights in the realm of Iranian public law. Mizan Legal Foundation, 432p (In Persian)Baqdadi M (1992) Al Moqnea. Thousandth Anniversary Shaykh Al-Mofid World Congress, 847p (In Arabic)Bashiri A, Alipour M, Chavoshi M S, Salehi A, Marani M R, Khamseh S, Shahrjerdi S H, Bashiri A, Nourmuhammadi Sigaroudi N, Barati Darani A A (2016) The system of governing water practical rights. Javdaneh, Jangal, 852p (In Persian)Boissière H (1881) Droit romain: de la Propriété des eaux courantes. Droit français: des Cours d'eau non navigables ni flottables: thèse pour le doctorat, Faculté de droit d'Aix, 164p (In French)Fayyazi S M R (2014) Figh evaluation of peoples' ownership on public wealth. Samt Publication, 232p (In Prian)Hilli H (1999) Tahrir al-Ahkam al-Shar'iyyah. Imam Sadiq Institution, Vol. 4, 648p (In Arabic)Hilli H (1992) Qawaʿid al-Ahkam fi Maʿrifat al-Halal wa al-Haram. Vol. 2, Office of Islamic publications, 575p (In Arabic)Hilli J (1966) Sharaye' al-Islam. Isma'ilian Institution, Vol. 3, 237p (In Arabic)
Hussayni Al-Sistani S A (1996) Minhaj-al-Salihin. Office of his eminence Al-Sayyid Ali Al0Hussayni Al-Sistani, Vol. 2, 486p (In Arabic)
Katouzian A N (2004) Properties and ownership. Mizan Publication, 272p (In Persian)Madanian Gh, Honari Ltif Pour A (2018) The legal system governing the exploitation of fresh water resources - Comparative study of water rights in Iran and the United States. Dad-o-Danesh Publication, 240p (In Persian)Meshkini A (N. D.) Mustalihat al-Fiqh. N. P., 579p (In Arabic)Montazei Nadjaf Abadi H A (N. D.) Resaleh-e-Estefta'at. N. P., 328p (In Persian)Mussavi al-Khomeini S R (N. D.) Tahrir al-Wasilah. Institution of Matbou'at-e-Dar-al-Ilm, 656p (In Arabic)Najafi M (1984) Jawahir al-Kalam fi Sharh Sharaye' al-Islam. Dar-al-Ihya Al-Turath Al-Arabiyyah, 389p (In Arabic)Pilvar R, Radjabi M (2018) Investigating the rights of water wells and Qanats in Iran. Enteshar Publication Co, 169p (In Persian)Rashidi H (2004) Law of equal water -distribution in Iran. Dadgostar Publication, Vol. 1, 578p (In Persian)Sadr S M B (1996) Iqtisaduna. Office of Islamic publications, 735p (In Arabic)Sarmad M (1975) Law of Water. Vol. 1, Keyhan, 161p (In Persian)Sarmad M (1975) Law of Water. Vol. 3, Keyhan, 161p (In Persian)  Shaykh al-Tousi M (1967) Al-Mabsut fi fiqh al-Imamiyya. Vol. 3, Al-Maktaba-al-Mortazawiyyah Le-Ihya'a Al-Athar Al-Jafariyyah, Vol. 3, 356p (In Arabic)Tabataba'i S M H (N. D.) Al-Mizan. Vol. 9, http://lib.eshia.ir/50081/9/4, 565p (In Arabic)Wahid Khorasani H (2007) Minhaj-al-salihin. School of Imam Baaqir, Vol. 3, 491p (In Arabic)The General Directorate of Cultural Affairs and Public Relations of the Islamic Consultative Assembly (1986) Detailed form of parliamentary negotiation Final examination of the constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran. The General Directorate of Cultural Affairs and Public Relations of the Islamic Consultative Assembly, 1886p (In Persian)
Abrams R H (1989) Charting the course of riparianism: An Instrumentalist theory of change, Wayne Law, Vol. 35: 1381, Review (In English)A group of authors (N. D.) Journal of Ahl-e-Bayt. Institute of Encyclopedia of Islamic jurisprudence on the religions of the Ahl al-Bayt, Vol. 42, 425p (In Arabic)A group of researchers (2005) Fiqh dictionary according to religion of Ahl-e-Bayt. Institute of Encyclopedia of Islamic jurisprudence on the religions of the Ahl al-Bayt, Vol. 1, 760p (In Persian)Chiu V (2018) Le droit de l’eau en France. Encyclopédie de l'environnement, 1-11 (In French)Dellapenna J W (2002) The law of water allocation in the southeastern states at the opening of the twenty-first century, 25 U. Ark. Little Rock L. Rev., Issue 1, vol. 25 (In Engish)Foures-Diop Anne-Sophie (2011) Les choses communes (Première partie). Revue juridique de l'Ouest, 2011(1): 59-112Habibi M, Najjarzade Hanjani M (2010) The Anfal determinant criterion and its proportion with other titles of public ownership. Private Law Journal 6(15):55-76 (In Persian)
Haqqani Zanjani H (1991) Anfal or public wealth. Types of Property in Islam and Their Cases, Oloum ensani Journal 3&4:3-15 (In Persian)
Karimi A (2000) Government ownership of public water and its dependent land. Law and Political Science Journal 45(836):59-67 (In Persian)
Lucarelli A (2010) La nature juridique de l'eau entre bien public et bien commun. Droit et gestion des collectivités territoriales, Les enjeux de la gestion locale de l'eau, 30:87-98
Masoumi M, Lotfi A (2018) The evaluation of legal jurisprudence place of water on public property. Islamic Jurisprudence Research Journal 13(1):51-83 (In Persian)Mowmen Qomi M (2010) Wali-e-Amr and property of public property. Fiqh-e-Ahl-e-Bayt Journal 15(60):29-47 (In Persian)Nowroozi Gh (2019) Reflection on legal challenges of water ownership at Zayanderood Basin from the perspective of public law. Public Law Studies Quarterly 48(4):867-886 (In Persian)  Sironneau J (1998) Droit et gestion de l'eau - Grandes tendances mondiales et applications récentes. Revue Juridique de l'Environnement 3:301-317