نقش قدرت در دیپلماسی آب

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد مهندسی منابع آ ب/ گروه مهندسی آبیاری و زهکشی, پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه تهران, کرج, البرز, ایران.

2 استادیار / گروه مهندسی منابع آب، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، وردآورد، دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه تربیت مدرس

3 دانشیار / گروه روابط بینالملل، دانشکده علوم انسانی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، پل گیشا دانشگاه تربیت مدرس

چکیده

آب به‌عنوان یک منبع طبیعی مشترک بین ذیمدخلان مختلف (محلی، منطقهای، ملی و بین المللی)، عنصری حیاتی برای بشر است که مرزهای سیاسی، اقتصادی و فرهنگی را به رسمیت نمی‌شناسد. ارتباط مستقیم بین امنیت آبی، امنیت انسانی و امنیت ملیِ دولت‌ها از یک سو و وجود حوضه‌های آبریز و آبخوان‌های مشترکِ بین‌المللیِ متعدد در دنیا از سوی دیگر، سبب شده است که سامانه‌های آبی به نحو اجتناب‌ناپذیری به یک مقوله سیاسی و امنیتی در دنیا تبدیل شوند و پیوند درهم‌تنیدة «آب، سیاست و امنیت» را ایجاد کنند. هدف از این مقاله، بررسی پیوند درهم‌تنیدة آب و سیاست با تمرکز بر مسأله قدرت است. از آنجا که قدرت یکی از مهم‌ترین عناصر تعیین و اجرای سیاست‌ها است و ارزش‌ها و هنجارها به‌عنوان پیشرانه‌های اجتماعی در شکل‌گیری قدرت سهیم هستند، لذا تعریف قدرت در دوره‌های زمانی و در شرایط مکانی مختلف، متفاوت خواهد بود. براین اساس، آشنایی و شناخت ماهیت و ابعاد مختلف قدرت و هژمونی (به مثابۀ یکی از مشتقات آن) بسیار حائز اهمیت است. قدرت همچنین در مناسباتِ آبی، به‌عنوان سامانه‌های درهمتنیدة طبیعی- انسانی، نقش بسیار مهمی ایفا می‌کند. طبق نظر وارنر، کشورهای بالادست، عموماً از آب برای به دست آوردن قدرت بیشتر استفاده می‌کنند درحالیکه کشورهای پایین‌دست عموماً قدرت را برای به دست آوردن آب بیشتر بکار می‌برند. با توجه به نقش و اثر جدی قدرت در هیدروپلیتیک به طور عام و دیپلماسی آب به طور خاص، این مقاله به بررسی و واکاوی ماهیت و نقش قدرت و هژموندر روابط کشورهای حوضه آبریز مشترک بین‌المللی می‌پردازد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Role of Power in Water Diplomacy

نویسندگان [English]

  • Seyedeh Zahra Ghoreishy 1
  • Hojjat Mianabadi 2
  • Seyed Masoud Mousavi Shafaee 3
1 M.Sc. Student, Department of Irrigation & Reclamation Engineering, Faculty of Agricultural Engineering & Technology, College of Agriculture & Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Alborz, Iran.
2 Assisstant Professor, Department of Agriculture, Tarbiat Modares University, VardAvard, Tehran, Iran.
3 Associate Professor, Department of International Relations, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Water as a natural common resource is shared among different stakeholders (local, sub-national, national and international) and is vital for the human, which ignores political, economic and cultural boundaries. The direct link between water security, human security and the national security of the states on the one hand, and the existence of numerous international transboundary river basins and aquifers throughout the world on the other, has led water systems to a political and security issue in the world. It has shaped the complex "water, politics and security" nexus. The purpose of this paper is to examine the nexus of water and politics with a focus on the issue of power. Since power is one of the most significant elements in policy making and its implementation; hence, the definition of power differs in different time and spatial conditions. Accordingly, understanding of the nature and dimensions of power and hegemony (as one of its derivatives) is so significant. Power plays a crucial role in water interactions as coupled complex human-natural systems. Generally, argued by Warner (2004), up-streamers use water to get more power and down-streamers use power to get more water. Considering the role and serious impact of power in hydropolitics in general and water diplomacy in particular, this paper critically examines the nature and role of power and hegemony in relations among international riparian countries.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Common Water Resource
  • Power
  • Hydrohegemony
  • Water Diplomacy
  • HydroPolitics
Alam AR (2004) The foundations of political science. NashreNey, 391p (In Persian)
Alemu and Dinar (2000) The process of negotiation over international water disputes:the case of the Nile Basin. International Negotiation 5(2):331-356
Asgar Khani A (2016) International regimes. Korsandi, 365p (In Persian)
Avarideh F (2018) Challenges, approaches of gap project in Turkey. Fourth Congress of the Engineering and Management of Water and Soil in Iran. University of Tehran (In Persian)
Bachrach P and Baratz MS (1962) Two faces of power. American Political Science Review 56(04):947-952
Barnett M and Duvall R (2005) Power in international politics. International Organization 59(1):39-75
Biswas AK (2011) Cooperation or conflict in transboundary water management: Case study of South Asia. Hydrological Sciences Journal 56(4):662-670
Buzan B, Waever O and Wilde J de (1998) Security: A new framework for analysis. Lynne Rienner Publishers, 239p
Cascão AE and Zeitoun M (2010) Power, hegemony and critical hydropolitics. In: Earle A, Jägerskog A and Öjendal J (eds) Transboundary Water Management: Principles and Practice. Earthscan, 27-42
Cox RW (1981) Social forces, states and world orders: beyond international relations theory. Millennium 10(2):126-155
Cox RW (1983) Gramsci, hegemony and international relations: An essay in method. Millennium 12(2):162-175
Cox RW and Sinclair TJ (1996) Approaches to world order. Cambridge University Press, 552p
Dahl RA (1957) The concept of power. Behavioral Science 2(3):201-215
Daoudy M (2005) Le partage des eaux entre la syrie, l’irak et la turquie- negociation, securite, et asymetrie des pouvoirs. CNRS Éditions , 269p
Dinar A and Nigatu GS (2013) Distributional considerations of international water resources under externality: The case of Ethiopia, Sudan and Egypt on the blue Nile. Water Resources and Economics 2(3):1-16
Dirzauskaite G and Ilinca NC (2017) Understanding “Hegemony” in international relations theories: comparative analysis of realism, liberalism and gramscian approaches of hegemony. M.Sc. Thesis, Aalborg University, Denmark
Dombrowsky I (2010) The role of intra-water sector issue linkage in the resolution of transboundary water conflicts. Water International 35(2):132-149
Ghasemi H (2012) A critique of the future of power: the future of power or the future of United States?. Critical Studies in Text & Programs of Human Science 17(8):275-296 (In Persian)
Gill S and Law D (1988) The global political economy: perspectives, problems, and policies. Johns Hopkins University Press, 394p
Gioberti V (1851) Del rinnovamento civile d’Italia. A Spese Di Giuseppe Bocca, 752p
Gramsci A (1992) Prison notebooks. Columbia University Press, 654p
Iyob B (2010) Resilience and adaptability of transboundary rivers: the principle of equitable distribution of benefits and the institutional capacity of the Nile Basin. PhD Thesis, Oregon State University, United States
Jägerskog A (2003) Why states co-operate over shared water: The water negotiations in the Jordan River Basin. Ph.D. Thesis, Linköping University, Sweden
Keohane R and Nye JS (1987) Power and interdependence revisited. International Organization 41(4):725-753
Khosravi A and Mirmohammadi M (2013) Reconstructing realism in Iranian culture and tradition. International Relations 5(18):107-136 (In Persian)
Kibaroğlu A (2002) Building a regime for the waters of the euphrates-Tigris River Basin. Kluwer Law International, 334p
Korkutan S (2001) The sources of conflict in the euphrates-Tigris Basin and its strategic consequences in the middle East. M.Sc.Thesis, Monterey, California, United States
Lukes S (2005) Power: A radical view. Palgrave Macmillan, 201p
Lustick IS (2002) Hegemony and the riddle of nationalism: The dialectics of nationalism and religion in the middle East. Journal of Modern Society & Culture 1(3):18-44
Mearsheimer JJ (2001) The tragedy of great power politics. W.W. Norton & Company, 561p
Menga F (2014) Power and dams in central Asia. Ph.D. Thesis, The University of Cagliari, Italy
Mianabadi H (2013) Political, security and legal considerations in trans-boundary river management. International Relations Research Quarterly 3(9):167-199 (In Persian)
Mianabadi H (2016) Hydropolitics and conflict management in transboundary river basins. Ph.D. Thesis, Delft University of Technology, Netherlands
Mianabadi H, Mostert E and Van de Giesen N (2015) Trans-boundary river basin management: factors influencing the success or failure of international agreements. In: Hipel KW, Fang L, Bristow MH and Cullmann J (eds) Conflict Resolution in Water Resources and Environmental Management. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 133-143
Mirumachi N (2010) Study of conflict and cooperation in international transboundary river basins: The TWINS framework. Ph.D. Thesis, King’s College London, University of London, United Kingdom
Mirumachi N (2015) Transboundary water politics in the developing world. Routledge, 203p
Nnoli O (1986) Introduction to politics. Longman, 234p
Nye JS (1990) Soft power. Foreign policy (80):153-171
Nye JS (2004) Soft power and american foreign policy. Political Science Quarterly 119(2):255-270
Nye JS (2011) The future of power. PublicAffairs, 300p
Pohl B, Kramer A, Hull W, Blumstein S, Abdullaev I, Kazbekov J, Reznikova T, Strikeleva E, Interwies E and Görlitz S (2017) Rethinking water in central Asia. Adelphi and CAREC, Technical Report, 131p
Rees G (2010) The role of power and institutions in hydrodiplomacy: does realism or neo-liberal institutionalism offer a stronger theoretical basis for analysing inter-state cooperation over water security ?. M.Sc. Thesis, University of London, United Kingdom
Reisner M (1993) Cadillac desert: The American West and its disappearing water. Penguin, 582p
Rostami I (2015) Analysis of elements of Iranian national power from the perspective of the school of Realism, with emphasis on the theory of Hans J Morgenthus. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Tehran, Iran (In Persian)
Shariyatinia M and Tohidi Z (2013) Iran and Western structural power. Journal Foreign Relations 5(3):125-149
Sinaei V (2011) Hydropolitics and human security: water cooperation in relations between iran hydropolitics and human security: Water cooperation. Iranian Review of Foreign Affairs 2(3):111-134
Strange S (1989) Toward a theory of transnational empire. In: Tooze R and May C (eds) Authority and markets: Susan Strange’s writings on international political. Palgrave Macmillan UK, 161-176
Strange S (1990) Finance, information and power. Review of International Studies 16(3):259-274
Strange S (1994) Who governs? networks of power in world society. Hitotsubashi Journal of Law and Politics 22(06):5-17
Swain A (2011) Challenges for water sharing in the Nile Basin: Changing geo-politics and changing climate. Hydrological Sciences Journal 56(4):687-702
Tafesse F and Eguzozie K (2009) Efficient hydrolysis of 4-nitrophenylphosphate catalyzed by copper bipyridyl in microemulsions. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 72(3):954-959
UNEP (2016) Transboundary river basins: status and trends. United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). Nairobi, Technical Report, 378p
Wang Y-K (2004) Offensive realism and the rise of China. Issues and Studies-English Edition 40(1):173-202
Warner J (2004) Mind the gap-working with buzan: the Illisu Dam as a security issue. SOAS Water Issues Study Group, School of Oriental and African Studies/King’s College-London. Occasional Paper 67
Whittington D, Wu X and Sadof C (2005) Water resources management in the Nile Basin: The economic value of cooperation. Water Policy 7(3):227-252
Wu X (2000) Game-theoretical approaches to water conflicts in international river basins: A case study of the Nile Basin. Ph.D. Thesis, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, United States
Zeitoun M (2008) Power and water in the middle East: The Hidden Politics of the Palestinian-Israeli Water Conflict. I.B.Tauris, 241p
Zeitoun M and Warner J (2006) Hydro-hegemony- A framework for analysis of trans-boundary water conflicts. Water Policy 8(5):435-460