شبیه سازی تعادل‌بخشی آبخوان در معرض افت شدید با اعمال سناریوهای مختلف مدیریتی- مطالعه موردی حوضه روانسر-سنجابی کرمانشاه

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار/ پژوهشکده حفاظت خاک و آبخیزداری، تهران، ایران.

2 دانشجوی دکتری/ دانشگاه خوارزمی، تهران، ایران.

3 دانشجوی دکتری/ دانشگاه کنتربری، کریست چرچ، نیوزلند.

چکیده

افزایش تقاضا و بهره‌برداری بیش از حد از آبخوان‌ها در ایران باعث شده تا بیش از 50 درصد آن‌ها در شرایط بحرانی قرار گیرند. برای جبران و توقف افت تراز سطح آب زیرزمینی، نیاز به مدیریت جامع منابع آب بوده که لازمه‌اش شبیه‌سازی شرایط پیچیده و انتخاب رویکرد مدیریتی مناسب می‌باشد. لذا پژوهش حاضر با هدف ارائه‌ی رویکرد مدیریتی مبتنی بر شرایط یک آبخوان تحت تنش شدید، با استفاده از مدل MODFLOW انجام شده است. بدین منظور آبخوان روانسر- سنجابی کرمانشاه، که 15 متر افت در طول 23 سال داشته، انتخاب شد. پس از واسنجی و ارزیابی مدل و نیز تهیه نقشه توزیع مکانی افت واقعی دوره 94-86، آبخوان به چهار پهنه افت شامل 0 تا 5، 5 تا 10، 10 تا 20 و 20 تا 45 متر تفکیک و سپس گزینه‌های مختلفی از ترکیب سناریوها برای جبران افت هر کدام از این پهنه‌ها اعمال شد. سناریوی اول شامل شرایط هشت سال اخیر منابع، مصارف و تغذیه آبخوان بوده که نتایج حاکی از 2/7 متر افت طی هشت سال آتی خواهد بود. در سناریوهای دوم و سوم با تأثیر شرایط خشکسالی و ترسالی، نتایج نشان داد که سطح آب به‌ترتیب 4/8 و 2/5 متر افت خواهد نمود. نتایج سه سناریوی اول نشان داد تأثیر نوسانات اقلیمی عامل اصلی تأثیرگذار بر افت سطح آب نیست. نتایج سناریوی چهارم با ترکیب‌های متفاوت 10 تا 70 درصدی کاهش نرخ بهره‌برداری نشان داد ترکیب ده درصدی در پهنه یک و 20 درصدی در سایر پهنه‌ها بهترین نتیجه را در بهبود وضعیت آبخوان فراهم می‌نماید.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Simulating the rehabilitation of an over-extracted aquifer by different management scenarios in the Ravansar-Sanjajabi catchment in Kermanshah

نویسندگان [English]

  • Jahangir Porhemmat 1
  • M. Altafi Dadgar 2
  • R. Porhemmat 3
1 Associate Professor, Soil Conversation and Watershed Management Research Institute (SCWMRI), Tehran, Iran.
2 PhD candidate, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran.
3 PhD candidate, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand
چکیده [English]

Rising water demands and over-extraction of groundwater have caused critical problems in more than 50% of the aquifers in Iran. Simulating complex condition of such aquifers and selecting an appropriate management approach are required to compensate drawdown. Therefore, this study aimed to provide a management approach for the Ravansar-Sanjabi aquifer in Kermanshah using the MODFLOW model, an aquifer under a severe stress during last decades. After calibrating and evaluating the model, as well as providing a spatial distribution map for the actual drawdown during the period of 2007-2015, the aquifer is divided into four drawdown zones, including 0 to 5, 5 to 10, 10 to 20, and 20 to 45 meters, and then several options of combining scenarios were applied to compensate the drawdown in each of zones. The first scenario includes the condition of the last eight years of sources and sinks and recharge of the aquifer, which resulted in a7.2 m decline during the next eight years. In the second and third scenarios, with the effects of drought and wet conditions, the results showed that groundwater level would decline by 8.4 and 5.2 m, respectively. The results of the first three scenarios showed that the effect of climate fluctuations is not the main factor affecting the groundwater level decline. The results of the fourth scenario, with different combinations of 10% to 70% reduction in pumping rates, showed that the combination of 10% in zone1 and 20% in the other zones provides the best results in improving aquifer conditions.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Management scenarios
  • Modeling
  • Over-extraction
  • Ravansar-Sanjabi
  • MODFLOW Model
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