مدیریت بهینه در مصرف آب و الگوی کشت با تاکید بر راهبرد کم آبیاری (مطالعه موردی: شبکه آبیاری قزوین)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری / گروه مهندسی اقتصاد کشاورزی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران.

2 دانشیار /گروه مهندسی اقتصاد کشاورزی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران.

3 استادیار /گروه مهندسی اقتصاد کشاورزی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران.

چکیده

با توجه به محدودیت منابع آب و ارزش آن در کشاورزی، به‌کارگیری هر راهکاری برای صرفه‌جویی در مصرف و استفاده بهینه از آب موجود امری مهم و ضروری است. یکی از ایـن راهکارها کم آبیاری می‌باشد. هدف این مطالعه، ارزیابی اثر درصدهای مختلف کاهش آب مصرفی در دورههای مختلف رشد بهعنـوان سـناریوهای کم‌آبیاری بر بهینه‌سازی مصرف آب و الگوی کشت غالب )گندم، جو، چغندرقند، ذرت دانهای، ذرت علوفهای و یونجه) در شبکه آبیاری دشت قزوین می‌باشد. به‌منظور بیشینه کردن درآمد مزرعه، از روش برنامه‌ریزی ریاضی اثباتی (PMP) به همراه روش حداکثر آنتروپی (ME) مشروط بر توابع واکنش عملکرد محصولات نسبت به آب در فضای سایر محدودیت ها، استفاده شد. اطلاعات موردنیاز این پژوهش با استفاده از روش نمونه‌گیری خوشه‌ای دومرحله‌ای از طریق تکمیل 144پرسشنامه در سال زراعی 95-1394بدست آمد. نتایج نشان داد که با اعمال کم آبیاری در بهترین حالت یعنی سناریوی اول (کاهش 5 درصد کم‌آبیاری در مرحله رسیدن برای محصولات گندم، جو، ذرت علوفه‌ای، ذرت دانه‌ای و چغندرقند و 5 درصد کم‌آبیاری در مرحله رشد رویشی محصول یونجه)، علی‌رغم صرفه‌جویی در مصرف آب به میزان 2/5 درصد، امکان افزایش درآمد مزرعه به میزان 4/0 درصد وجود دارد. از طرفی دیگر، بسته به‌شدت بحران و مقدار کمبود آب، تصمیم‌گیری برای تعیین راهبرد کم‌آبیاری و الگوی کشت منطقه متفاوت است، به‌نحوی‌که اگر بیشتر حفاظت منابع آب منطقه موردنظر باشد، نتایج سناریوهای دوم و سوم، بهترین گزینه برای استفاده بهینه از زمین و کمینه آب موجود خواهد بود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Management of Irrigation Water Allocation and Cropping Pattern with emphasis on Deficit Irrigation Strategy (Case study: Qazvin Irrigation Network)

نویسندگان [English]

  • M.A Asaadi 1
  • S. Khalilian 2
  • S.H Mousavi 3
1 PH. D Student, Department of Agricultural Economics Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
2 Associate Professor, Department of Agricultural Economics Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
3 Assistant Professor, Department of Agricultural Economics Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University
چکیده [English]

Considering the limitation of water resources and their value in agriculture, the use of any strategy for consumption and optimal use of existing water is essential. One of these solutions is Deficit irrigation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of different percentages of reduction of water consumption in different growing stages as deficit irrigation scenarios on the Optimization of Water Use and dominant cropping pattern (Wheat, Barley, Sugar beet, Forage Corn, Maize corn and Alfalfa) in Qazvin plain irrigation network. In order to maximize farm income, the PMP method, along with the method of Maximum Entropy (ME) based on the reaction functions of the products yield comparing to water in the space of other constraints was used. The required information for this research was obtained by using two-stage cluster sampling method through completing 144 questionnaires in farm years of 2015-2016. Results showed that by applying deficit irrigation at best condition (first scenario), despite the 5.2% saving in water consumption, it is possible to increase farm income by 0.4%. On the other hand, depending on the severity of the crisis and the amount of the water scarcity, decision to determine the deficit irrigation strategy and the region's cultivation pattern would be different so that if more water conservation is desired, the results of the second and third scenarios are the best option for the optimal use of land resources and the minimum water consumption.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Deficit irrigation
  • Management Solution
  • Positive Mathematical Programming
  • cropping pattern
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