مطالعه تطبیقی تجربه‌های بین‌المللی بازار آب

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

گروه مدیریت منابع آب، دانشکده مهندسی عمران، پردیس دانشکده های فنی، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران.

چکیده

رشد جمعیت و تقاضای روزافزون آب در سراسر دنیا و کاهش میزان دسترسی به آب به دلیل اثرات تغییر اقلیم، تنش‌های فزاینده‌ای بر منابع آب اعمال کرده‌اند. این شرایط، مشکلات تخصیص منابع آب را تشدید می‌کند. تجارت آب، بدون نیاز به سرمایه‌گذاری‌های عظیم برای ساخت تأسیسات ذخیره آب، به عنوان رویکردی غیر‌‌سازه‌ای برای کاهش مشکلات ناشی از کمبود آب می‌تواند مطرح شود. با این رویکرد، انگیزه بهره‌برداران برای استفاده بهینه از آب بیشتر خواهد بود. در پی مصوبه شورای عالی آب در مورد ایجاد بازارهای آب در کشور، مشکلات قانونی مربوط به داد و ستد آب در ایران تا حد زیادی مرتفع شده است و مدتی است که مدیران بخش آب کشور، تأکید ویژه‌ای بر نگرش اقتصادی در زمینه توزیع آب و راه‌اندازی بازارهای آب دارند. با وجود عزم موجود برای شکل‌گیری و توسعه بازارهای آب، عدم توجه به سایر ابعاد جانبی آن می‌تواند منجر به شکست بازار شود. با توجه به تجربیات ناچیز بازار آب در ایران، در این مقاله مروری تلاش شده است تا با بررسی ساختار بازار آب کشورهای استرالیا، آمریکا، شیلی، اسپانیا و چین و مقایسه عملکرد آن‌ها ازجنبه‌های مختلف، به تحلیل عوامل مؤثر بر بازدهی این ابزار‌ها پرداخته شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Comparative Study of International Water Markets

نویسندگان [English]

  • Sajad Vahedizade
  • Leila Forouhar
  • Reza Kerachian
Water Resources Management, School of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
چکیده [English]

The growth of the world's population, the increasing water demand all around the world and the reduction of available water due to climate change effects, have all led to increasing water resources stresses. These conditions would intensify the problems of allocation of water resources. Water trading can be considered as a non-structural approach to decrease the problems of water shortage, without need for huge investments in the installation of water supplies. With this approach, the contributors will also be more motivated to use water efficiently. According to the act of Supreme Council of Water about establish water markets in Iran, the legal issues about markets are mostly solved, and the water authorities have been emphasizing on developing an economical approach in water distribution. Despite all the determination about developing the water markets, neglecting other third-party impacts would lead to a failure. Considering the little experiences about water markets in Iran, this review paper has tried to analyze the effective causes on water markets establishment by analyzing the institutions of water markets in Australia, Western USA, Chile, Spain and China, as well as comparing their performances from different aspects.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Water Market
  • Water Economics
  • comparative study
  • Market Mechanism
ABARES (2016) Australian water markets report 2014-15. Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics and Sciences ,Canberra

Alarcón J and Juana L (2016) The water markets as effective tools of managing water shortages in an irrigation district. Water Resources Management 30(8):2611–2625

Bauer CJ (2004) Results of Chilean water markets: Empirical research since 1990. Water Resources Research 40(9)

Bauer CJ (2008) The experience of Chilean water markets. Management 3:146–165

Bjornlund H (2003) Efficient water market mechanisms to cope with water scarcity. International Journal of Water Resources Development 19(4):553–567

Bohlolvand A, Sadr SK and Hashemi A (2014) The role of agricultural water markets in the allocation and pricing of water resources (Case study: Mojen Water market). Iranian Journal of Agricultural Economics and Development Research 45(4):761–773 (In Persian)

Brown TC (2006) Trends in water market activity and price in the western United States. Water Resources Research 42(9)

Connor JD and Kaczan D (2013) Principles for economically efficient and environmentally sustainable water markets: The Australian experience BT - drought in arid and semi-arid regions: A multi-disciplinary and cross-country perspective. In: Schwabe K, Albiac J, Connor JD, Hassan RM and Meza González L (eds) Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 357–374

Dinar A and Letey J (1991) Agricultural water marketing, allocative efficiency and drainage reduction. Journal of Environmental Economics and Management. Academic Press 20(3):210–223

Garrido A, Rey D and Calatrava J (2012) Water trading in Spain. Water, Agriculture and the Environment in Spain. CRC Press, 205–216

Giannoccaro G, Pedraza V and Berbel J (2013) Analysis of stakeholders’ attitudes towards water markets in southern Spain. Water 5:1517-1532

Grafton RQ, Libecap G, McGlennon S, Landry C and O’Brien B (2011) An integrated assessment of water markets: A cross-country comparison. Review of Environmental Economics and Policy 5(2):219–239

Hadjigeorgalis E (2009) A place for water markets: Performance and challenges. Review of Agricultural Economics 31(1):50–67

Hearne R and Donoso G (2014) Water markets in Chile: Are they meeting needs? BT -Water markets for the 21st century: What have we learned? In: Easter KW and Huang Q (eds) Springer Netherlands, 103–126

Honey-Rosés J (2009) Reviewing the arguments for market based approaches to water distribution: a critical assessment for sustainable water management in Spain. Sustainable Development. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. 17(6):357–364, Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/sd.391

Howe CW (Chuck) (2015) The development of an efficient water market in northern Colorado, USA BT - Use of economic instruments in water policy: Insights from international experience. In: Lago M, Mysiak J, Gómez CM, Delacámara G and Maziotis A (eds) Cham: Springer International Publishing, 301–315

Hughes N, Gupta M and Rathakumar K (2016) Lessons from the water market: The southern Murray–Darling basin water allocation market 2000–01 to 2015–16. Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics and Sciences ,Canberra

Koopman JFL, Kuik O, Tol RSJ and Brouwer R (2017) The potential of water markets to allocate water between industry, agriculture and public water utilities as an adaptation mechanism to climate change. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 22(2):325–347

Moore SM (2015) The development of water markets in China: progress, peril and prospects. Water Policy 17(2):253 LP-267

NWC (2011) Water markets in Australia: a short history. National Water Commission ,Canberra

Palomo-Hierro S, Gómez-Limón AJ and Riesgo L (2015) Water markets in Spain: Performance and challenges. Water, 7:652-678, doi: 10.3390/w7020652

Rey D, Garrido A and Calatrava J (2014) Water markets in Spain: Meeting twenty-first century challenges with twentieth century regulations BT - Water markets for the 21st century: What have we learned? In: Easter KW and Huang Q (eds), 127–147

Varghese S (2013) Water trading in the U.S. and Australia: Lessons for water governance in the 21st century. The Institute for Agriculture and Trade Policy

Wheeler S, Bjornlund H and Loch A (2014) Water trading in Australia: Tracing its’ development and impact over the past three decades. In: Easter KW and Huang Q (eds) Water Markets for the 21st Century: What Have We Learned?. Springer Netherlands, 179–202