بررسی کارآئی روش های تجربی برآورد تبخیر- تعرق مرجع (بر پایه تشتک تبخیر) در اقلیم های مختلف (مطالعه موردی ایران)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استاد گروه مهندسی آب دانشگاه رازی

2 مهندسی آب ، کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه رازی، کرمانشاه، ایران

چکیده

در این تحقیق جهت تعیین بهترین روش برآورد تبخیر- تعرق گیاه مرجع در بین روش‌های بر پایه تشت تبخیر برای اقلیم‌های مختلف از آمار واطلاعات هواشناسی روزانه طی 15 سال (2013-1999) در153 ایستگاه سینوپتیک سراسرکشور استفاده شد. تبخیر - تعرق مرجع برای کل ایستگاه‌های سینوپتیک کشور، از 12 روش بر پایه تشتک تبخیر محاسبه شد، همچنین ازروش فائو- پنمن- مانتیث ‌به عنوان روش استاندارد برای ارزیابی دیگر روش‌ها استفاده گردید. برای ارزیابی دقت مدل‌ها از آزمون‌های آماری RMSE،MBE ، R2 و t استفاده بعمل آمد. نتایج نهایی نشان داد که در دو اقلیم خشک و نیمه‌خشک کشور روش‌های محمد و همکاران، فائو- 24 در شرایط خشک و کریستیانسن مناسب‌ترین و روش‌های اشنایدر ،آلن و پروت، راگووانشی و والندر، نامناسب‌ترین روش‌های برآورد تبخیر- تعرق بودند. برای اقلیم مدیترانه‌ای روش‌های محمد و همکاران، کونیکا و اشنایدر، مناسب ترین و روش‌های پرییرا، فائو- 24 در شرایط خشک و راگووانشی و والندر به عنوان نامناسب‌ترین روش‌ها شناخته شدند. در اقلیم نیمه مرطوب روش‌های اشنایدر اصلاح شده، آلن و پروت و پرییرا مناسب‌ترین و روش‌های محمد و همکاران، فائو-24 در شراط خشک و راگووانشی و والندر نامناسب‌ترین روش‌ها بودند. در اقلیم‌های مرطوب و بسیار مرطوب به ترتیب روش‌های اشنایدر اصلاح شده و فائو-56 (آلن ، 1998) بهترین و روشهای پرییرا، فائو24- در شرایط بدون پوشش محمد و همکاران و فائو-24 در شرایط خشک و روش‌های راگووانشی و والندر بدترین روش‌ها بودند. در نهایت مقایسه نتایج حاصل از مطالعات لیسیمتری در اقلیم نیمه خشک صحت روش‌های انتخابی را تایید نمود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluating efficiency of empirical estimation reference evapotranspiration (Pan based method) in different climate conditionss (Case Study of Iran)

نویسنده [English]

  • Narges Soultani 2
2 Water Resources, Agriculture and Natural Resources, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran
چکیده [English]

In this research, daily meteorological data for 15 years (1999-2013) were used in 153 synoptic stations throughout the Iran country to determine the best estimation methods for evapotranspiration of reference plant among pan evaporation methods for different climate conditions. For the total synoptic stations of the country, evapotranspiration was calculated from 12 evaporation pan methods, and the FAO-Penman-Monteith method was used as the standard for evaluating with pan methods. RMSE, MBE, R2 and t tests were used to evaluate the accuracy of the methods. The final results showed that in two arid and semi-arid climates, Mohammad et al , FAO-24 (in dry conditions) and Christensen methods were the most suitable methods and different methods as Schneider, Allen and Prout, Ragvanshi and Waldner were the most inappropriate methods. For the Mediterranean climate condition, Mohammed et al, Konica and Schneider were the most appropriate methods and Pereira's, FAO-24 (in dry conditions), Ragvanshi and Waldner were identified as the most inappropriate methods. In the semi-humid climate, the modified Schneider method, Allen, Prout, and Pryira were the most appropriate methods and Mohamad et al, FAO-24 (in dry condition), Ragvanshi and Waldner and were the most inappropriate methods. In the wet and humid climates conditions, modified Schneider method, (Alan et al 1998) were the best and Pryira, FAO-24 (in dry conditions) and Mohammed et al, Ragvanshi and Waldner methods were the worst methods respectively. Moreover, Finally, comparing the results of lysimetric studies in semi-arid climate confirmed the selected methods.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Reference plant evapotranspiration
  • Pan based method
  • statistical tests
  • Lysimetric studies
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