تأثیر خشکسالی بر کیفیت آب‌های زیرزمینی دشت هشتگرد از دیدگاه آبیاری

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 عضو هیئت علمی دانشگاه زنجان

2 گروه مهندسی آب، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه زنجان، بلوار دانشگاه، زنجان، ایران

چکیده

در پژوهش حاضر تأثیر خشکسالی بر کیفیت آب زیرزمینی از دیدگاه آبیاری در آبخوان دشت هشتگرد بررسی شد. ابتدا با استفاده از مقادیر بارش 6 ایستگاه هواشناسی دشت هشتگرد و روش پلی‌گون‌بندی تیسن، متوسط مجموع ماهانه بارندگی دشت برای دوره 30 سال (1364 تا 1394) محاسبه شد. متوسط ماهانه سطح آب زیرزمینی، بر اساس اطلاعات 8 چاهک مشاهده‌ای و روش پلی‌گون‌بندی تیسن، برای دوره 23 سال (1370 تا 1393) محاسبه شد. سپس خشکسالی آب و هوایی، با شاخص SPI و خشکسالی آب زیرزمینی با شاخص GRI محاسبه شد. بر اساس نتایج، طولانی‌ترین دوره خشکسالی آب و هوایی با دوام 2 ساله، قدرت، شدت و متوسط بارش 73/2-=SPIsum، 365/1-=SPIavg و 70/157 میلی‌متر (به ترتیب) در سال‌های آبی 1377 تا 1378 بود. شدیدترین خشکسالی آب زیرزمینی در 4 سال آبی 1389 تا 1393، با قدرت 10/6-=GRIsum، شدت 53/1-=GRIavg و متوسط سالانه سطح آب زیرزمینی 26/1180 متر بود. در دوره زمانی 12 ماه، بین سطح آب زیرزمینی و بارش، همبستگی معنی‌دار با 11 ماه تأخیر وجود داشت. در خردادماه سال آبی 1392-1393 با شرایط خشکسالی بسیار شدید، کیفیت آب 16 درصد از سطح آبخوان برای آبیاری مناسب و 84 درصد نامناسب بود در حالی که در آذرماه همان سال آبی 100 درصد سطح آبخوان دارای کیفیت نامناسب بود. بر اساس شاخص LSI، در کلیه سال‌های مورد بررسی و در هر دو مقطع زمانی خرداد و آذرماه، آب 100 درصد سطح آبخوان دشت هشتگرد دارای پتانسیل تشکیل رسوبات کربنات کلسیم بود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Drought on Hashtgerd Plain Groundwater Quality Considering Irrigation Use

نویسندگان [English]

  • Jaefar Nikbakht 1
  • Omid Moradi 2
2 Department of water Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zanjan, University Blvd., Zanjan, I. R. Iran
چکیده [English]

In this research, impact of drought on groundwater quality investigated on irrigation usage in Hashtgerd plain aquifer. First, using Thiessen-polygon method and precipitation values of 6 weather stations in Hashtgerd plain, total average monthly rainfall for a period of 30 years (1985-2015) was calculated. Average monthly of groundwater levels for a period of 23 years (1991-2014) were calculated using 8 observation wells data and Thiessen-polygon method. Climatological drought calculated by SPI and groundwater drought calculated by GRI. Based on results, the longest climatological drought with durability of 2 years, severity -2.73 (SPIsum), density -1.365 (SPIavg) and total average monthly rainfall 157.70 mm were in the water years 1998-1999. The most severe groundwater drought was in the water years 2010-2014 (4 years durability) with severity -6.10 (GRIsum), density -1.53 (GRIavg) and groundwater average monthly level 1180.26m. On 12 months period, correlation between groundwater levels and rainfall amounts were significant with time-lag of 11 months. In June of water year 2013-2014 with extreme drought condition, water quality of 16% aquifer area was appropriate to use plants irrigating but 84% was inappropriate while in December, 100% aquifer area was inappropriate as irrigation water quality. Based on LSI, in June and December of all studied years, water quality of 100% Hashtgerd plain aquifer area, it was possible to formation of calcium carbonate sediments.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Drought
  • Standard Precipitation Index (SPI)
  • Groundwater Resource Index (GRI)
  • Willcox Diagram
  • Langelier saturation Index
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Effect of Drought on Hashtgerd Plain Groundwater