ارزیابی و مقایسه روش‌های مختلف برآورد تبخیرو تعرق مرجع بر اساس روش‌های انتقال جرم در ایران و پهنه‌بندی آن با استفاده ازGIS

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استاد گروه مهندسی آب دانشگاه رازی

2 گروه مهندسی آب ، دانشگاه رازی

چکیده

پژوهش حاضر سعی در ارزیابی و پهنه بندی تبخیر و تعرق گیاه مرجع (ETo) بر اساس روش های مبنی بر انتقال جرم در اقلیم های مختلف ایران و همچنین ارائه آن در قالب نقشه های پهنه بندی به عنوان ابزاری اساسی برای مدیریت آب دارد. برای این منظور، از میانگین های دراز مدت متغیرهای اقلیمی 150 ایستگاه سینوپتیک کشور ایران در طی دوره آماری 15 ساله (1990 تا 2013) استفاده شد. تبخیر- تعرق گیاه مرجع بر مبنای اطلاعات اقلیمی هریک از ایستگاه ها و با استفاده از روش های مبنی بر انتقال جرم شامل دالتون، ترابرت ، مییر، روهور، پنمن، آلبرت، روماننکو، بروکمپ و ونر، سازمان جهانی هواشناسی و ماهرینگر، محاسبه شدند. مناسب ترین و نامناسب ترین روش های محاسباتی در هر اقلیم از بین روشهای ذکر شده، در مقایسه با معادله فائو – پنمن – مانتیث به عنوان روش مرجع، انتخاب گردیدند. بر اساس محاسبات و تجزیه و تحلیل های آماری بعمل آمده برای اقلیم های خشک روش های سازمان جهانی هواشناسی و آلبرت، نیمه خشک روش های مییر و روماننکو، مدیترانه ای روش های سازمان جهانی هواشناسی و آلبرت، نیمه مرطوب و مرطوب روش های روهور و روماننکوو بسیار مرطوب روش های بروکمپ وونر و پنمن، به ترتیب به عنوان مناسب ترین و نامناسب ترین روش ها انتخاب شدند. ضمنا نتایج لیسیمتری بدست آمده انتخاب روشهای پیشنهادی در اقلیم نیمه خشک را تایید کردند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation and Comparison of Different Methods of Reference Evapotrantranspiration Based on Mass Transmission Methods in Iran and its Zoning by Using GIS

نویسنده [English]

  • Zahra Niazi 2
2 Water Resources Dept, Razi University
چکیده [English]

The present study aims to evaluate and zonate the evapotranspiration based on mass transfer methods in different climates of Iran and also to present it in the form of zoning maps as a basic tool for water management. For this purpose, the long-term mean of climate variables of 150 synoptic stations in Iran country during the 15-years of statistical period (1990 to 2013) were used. Dumarton method was used for climate selection in different parts of country. The results of the study showed that dry, semi-arid, Mediterranean, semi-humid, moist, and very humid climates were 75.7, 21, 0.8, 0.6, 0.8 and 1% of the country's land area. Evapotranspiration of the reference plant was calculated based on the climatic information of each station using the methods of mass transfer including Dalton, Trabert, Meyer, Rohwer, Penman, Albercht, Romanenko, Brockamp and Wenner, World Meteorological Organization and Mahringer. The most appropriate and inappropriate computational methods in each climate were selected among the methods mentioned above, compared to the FAO-Penman-Monteith equation as a reference method. Based on the calculations and statistical analyzes conducted for dry climates by the World Meteorological Organization and Alberta, the semi-dry methods of the Meyer and Romanenko, Mediterranean methods of the World Meteorological Organization and Albert, the semi-wet and wet methods of Rohwer and Romanenko methods the very humid methods of Brockamp and Wenner and Penman were chosen as the most appropriate and inappropriate methods respectively. Meanwhile, the resulting of lysimetric data confirmed the selection of suggested methods in a semi-arid climate.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Iran
  • evapotranspiration
  • Mass Transfer
  • Lysimeter

Albrecht F (1950) Die methoden zur Bestimmung Verdunstung der natürlichen Erdoberflache. Arch Meteor Geoph Biokl Ser B.2:1–38

Allen RG, Pereira LS, Raes D, Smith M (1998) Crop evapotranspiration: Guidelines for computing crop water requirements. FAO Irrigation and Drainage Paper, 56, Rome, Italy, 300 p

Azhar A, Perera B (2011) Evaluation of reference evapotranspiration estimation methods under southeast Australian conditions. J Irrig Drain Eng. 137:268–279

Babamiri O, Dinpazhoh Y (2016) Comparison and evaluation of twenty methods for estimating reference evapotranspiration based on three general categories: air temperature, solar radiation and mass Transfer in the basin of lake Urmia. Journal of Water and Soil Sci. (Sci. & Technol. Agric. & Natur. Resour) 20 (77):145-161(In Persian)

Bolhasani k, Zarei H (2016) Estimation of location and zoning of reference evapotranspiration using statistical methods and geographic information systems. Journal of Aquatic Sciences and Engineering, Ahwaz Islamic Azad University 11(13):7-21 (In Persian)

Brockamp B,Wenner H (1963) Verdunstungsmessungen aufden Steiner See bei Münster. Dt Gewasserkundl Mitt 7:149–154

Dalton J (1802) Experimental essays on the constitution of mixed gases; on the force of steam of vapour from waters and other liquids in different temperatures, both in a torricellian vacuum and in air on evaporation and on the expansion of gases by heat. Mem Manch Lit Philos Soc. 5:535–602

Ganjizadeh R, Boromand Nasab S, Soltani Mahmoudi A, Ganjizadeh H (2013) Determination of reference evapotranspiration by using interpolation methods and comparing it with empirical methods (Case study: Golestan). In:Proc. First Conference-National Water Crisis, Isfahan (In Persian)

Grismer M, Orang M, Matyac S (2002) Pan evaporation to evapotranspiration conversion methods.J. Irrig. Drain. Eng. 128(3):180–184

Hargreaves GH (1994) Defining and using reference evapotranspiration. Journal of Irrig. and Drain Eng., ASCE 120(6):1132-1139

Hayati H, Haghighatjou P, Samiee M (2012) Evaluation mass transfer methods for calculating evaporation in Sistan plain .In: Proc. Third National Conference on Integrated Water Resources Management, 10p (In Persian)

Jacovides CP (1997) Reply to comment on statistical procedures for the evaluation of evapotranspiraiton models. Journal of Agricultural water management 3:95-97

Kouchakzadeh M, and Bahmani A (2005) Assessment of artificial neural networks revenue in reducing required parameters for estimation of reference evapotranspiration. Journal of Agricultural sciences Islamic Azad University 4:87-97

Mahringer W (1970) Verdunstungsstudien am neusiedler see. Arch Met Geoph Biokl Ser B .18:1–20

Mardikis MG, Kalives DP, Kollias V J (2005) Comparison of interpolatiob methods for the prediction of referenceevapotranspiration-An application in Greece. Journal Water Resources Management, Publisher Springer Netherlands 19(3)

Martinez-Cob A (1996) Multivariate geostatistical analysis of evaporation and precipitation in mountainous terrain. Journal of Hydrology 174(1–2):19–35

Meyer A (1926) Uber einige Zusammenhnge zwischen Klima und Boden in Europa. Chemie der Erde. 2:209–347

Nazarifar M, Seifi K, Momeni R (2007) Estimation of geostatistical and Tissen methods in estimating regional variations of potential evapotranspiration (Case study: Hamadan). In: Proc. Ninth Irrigation Seminar and Evaporation Reduction, Kerman: Shahid Bahonar Kerman University (In Persian)

Penman HC (1948) Natural evaporation from open water, bare soil and grass. Proc R Soc Lond Ser A. 193:120–145

Rohwer C (1931) Evaporation from free water surface. USDA Tech Null. 217:1–96

Romanenko VA (1961) Computation of the autumn soil moisture using a universal relationship for a large area. Proceedings, Ukrainian Hydrometeorological Research Institute, no. 3.Kiev

Sabziparvar AA, Bayatvarkeshi M, Ghasemi A (2008) Evaluation of different methods for estimating evapotranspiration in two different climates (Case study: Hamadan, Karaj, Gorgan). In: Proc.Third National Conference on Integrated Water Resources Management.Tabriz.7p. https://www.civilica.com/ Paper-WRM03-WRM03_178.html (In Persian)

Sharghi T, Bari Abarghuei H, Asadi MA, Kousari MR (2010) Estimation of reference evapotranspiration using FAO-Penman-Monteith method and its zonation in Yazd province. Journal of Arid Biom Scientific and Research 1(1):25-32 (In Persian)

Tabari HM, Grismer E, Trajkovic S (2011) Comparative analysis of 31 reference evapotranspiration methods under humid conditions. Irrig. Sci. 31(2):107-117

Trabert W (1896) Neue Beobachtungen u¨ber Verdampfungsgeschwindigkeiten. meteorol Z, 13:261–263

Tomar AS (2015) Performance evaluation of mass transfer-based reference evapotranspiration equations with FAO-56 pm model as index at tarairegion of uttarakhand, India. International Journal of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine 3(4) 12p

Valipour M (2014) Application of new Mass transfer formulae for Computation of Evapotranspiration. Journal of Applied Water Engineering and Research 2(1):33-46

WMO (1966) Measurement and estimation of evaporation and evapotranspiration. Tech Pap. (CIMO-Rep) 83

Xu C Y, singhV P (1997) Sensitivity of mass transfer-based evaporation equations to errors in daily and monthly input data. Hydrological Process 11:1465-1473

Xu CY, Singh VP (2002) Cross comparison of empirical equations for calculating potential evapotranspiration with data from Switzerland. Water Resources Manage 16:197-219

Zareabayneh H, Bayat Varkeshi M, Sabziparvar AA, Marofi S, Ghasemi A (2010) Evaluation of different reference evapotranspiration methods and their zonings in Iran. Journal of Physical Geography Research Quarterly 42(74):95-109 (In Persian)

Zhai LQ, Feng Q Li, Xu CY (2010) Comparison and modification of equations for calculating evapotranspiration (ET) with data from Gansu province, northwest China. Irrig. Drain 59:477-490