ارزیابی مدل‌های رقومی ارتفاعی مبتنی بر سنجش از دور جهت کاربرد در مدلسازی هیدرولیکی سیلاب

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

عضو هیئت علمی گروه مهندسی آب دانشگاه امام خمینی

چکیده

عدم دسترسی به نقشه‌های زمینی با دقت بالا بویژه در حوضه‌های فاقد آمار، بسیاری از پروژه‌های مرتبط با مبحث سیلاب و هیدرولیک جریان را با چالشی اساسی روبرو می‌نماید. نقطه مقابل نقشه‌های زمینی، DEMهای مبتنی بر سنجش از دور قرار دارند که به علت یکنواختی داده‌ها و دسترسی رایگان به آنها در سالهای اخیر مورد توجه بسیاری از محققین در مطالعات مختلف به ویژه مدلسازی هیدرولیکی سیلاب قرار گرفته‌اند. پژوهش حاضر با هدف بررسی کفایت این منابع ارتفاعی جهت کاربرد در مدلسازی هیدرولیکی سیلاب به انجام رسیده است. نتایج حاصل از کاربرد منابع ارتفاعی مختلف در دو رودخانه سرباز و سجاس‌رود حاکی از آن است که DEMهای 30 متری ALOS نسبت به منابع دیگر، از قابلیت به مراتب بالاتری جهت ساخت مدل هندسی و متعاقب آن مدلسازی هیدرولیکی سیلاب برخوردار می‌باشند. به عنوان مثال، متوسط خطای نسبی ناشی از کاربرد این منبع در تخمین پهنه سیلاب دو رودخانه سرباز و سجاس‌رود به ترتیب کمتر از 13 و 9 درصد می‌باشد. بر خلاف این منبع، نتایج حاصل از کاربرد DEMهای ASTER در هیچکدام از رودخانه‌های مزبور چندان رضایت بخش نبوده به طوریکه متوسط خطا در برآورد پهنه سیلاب با استفاده از این منبع بیش از 38% می‌باشد. در یک جمع‌بندی کلی می‌توان چنین عنوان نمود که DEMهای ALOS و ASTER به ترتیب بهترین و بدترین منبع ارتفاعی برای ساخت مدل هندسی و متعاقب آن مدلسازی هیدرولیکی سیلاب می‌باشند و لذا در حوضه‌های فاقد آمار استفاده از DEMهای 30 متری ALOS به ویژه در مطالعات فاز یک می‌تواند بسیار گره‌گشا باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigating the Application of Remote-Sensing Based DEMs in Hydraulic Simulation of Flood

نویسنده [English]

  • Asghar Azizian
Assistant Professor in Water Engineering Dept./ Imam Khomeini International University
چکیده [English]

Digital elevation models (DEMs) are one the most important inputs of hydraulic and hydrological models. Due to lack of ground high resolution maps, especially in data sparse regions, hydraulic modeling is a daunting and more challenging task. In recent years, remote-sensing based DEMs due to ease of access and being free of charge are extensively used in several studies particularly hydraulic modeling. One of the most important questions on application of hydraulic models is the efficiency of these DEMs in flood simulation. On this basis, this research focused on application of remote-sensing based DEMs on the performance of HEC-RAS-1D model in two different rivers. The results show that the accuracy of ALOS-30m DEMs in deriving geometric model and subsequently flood simulation is higher and considerable than other DEM sources. For example, the average relative error (RE) of using this dataset in simulating inundated extents in Sarbaz and SojasRood rivers is lower than 13 and 9 %, respectively. In contrast, the results of ASTER-30m DEMs in both rivers is not satisfactory and the average RE of inundated extents is more than 38%. As an overall conclusion, one can deduce that ALOS and ASTER DEMs are the best and the worst datasets for creating geometric model and flood simulation. Hence, in data sparse areas or underfunding projects, using ALOS-30m DEMs especially in early Designs can be useful and beneficial.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Digital Elevation Models (DEMs)
  • Remote Sensing
  • Inundated Extent and Hydraulic Modeling

Ali A, Solomatine DP, Baldassarre GD (2015) Assessing the impact of different sources of topographic data on 1-D hydraulic modelling of floods. Hydrol Earth Syst Sci 19:631–643

Azizian A, Shokoohi AR (2015b) Investigation of the effects of DEM creation methods on the performance of a semi distributed model: TOPMODEL. Journal of Hydrologic Engineering 20(11):05015005(1-9)

Azizian A, Shokoohi AR (2015a) Effects of data resolution and stream delineation threshold effects on the results of a kinematic wave based GIUH model. Journal of Water S.A 4(9):61-70

Barani GA, Yaghoubzadeh M, Akbarpour, A (2011) Application of IRS and LANDSAT (ETM+) satellite images for watersheds runoff curve number map preparation. Iran-Water Resources Research 7(3):95-98 (In Persian)

Brandt S (2005) Resolution issues of elevation data during inundation modeling of river floods. In: Proceedings of the XXXI International Association of Hydraulic Engineering and Research Congress (IAHR) 3573–3581

Bruner GW (2014) Combined 1D and 2D modeling with HEC-RAS. Version 5 Hydrologic Engineering Center, Davis, California, 130p

Casas A, Benito G, Thorndycraft VR, Rico M (2006) The topographic data source of digital terrain models as a key element in the accuracy of hydraulic flood modelling. Earth Surf. Proc. Land 31:444–456

Cook A, Merwade V (2009) Effect of topographic data, geometric configuration and modeling approach on flood inundation mapping. Journal of Hydrology 377:131–142

Haile A, Rientjes T (2005) Effects of LiDAR DEM resolution in flood modelling: A model sensitivity study for the city of Tegucigalpa, Honduras. ISPRS WG III/3, III/4 V/3 Workshop Laser Scanning 168–173

Hall JW, Tarantola S, Bates PD, Horritt MS (2005) Distributed sensitivity analysis of flood inundation model calibration. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering 131:117–126

Laks I, Sojka M, Walczak Z, Wró˙zyn´ski R (2017) Possibilities of using low quality digital elevation models of floodplains in hydraulic numerical models. Water 9:283-300

Jung Y, Merwade V (2011) Uncertainty quantification in flood inundation mapping using generalized likelihood uncertainty estimate and sensitivity analysis. Journal of Hydrologic Engineering 17(4):507–520

Kavanagh BF, Glenn BSJ (1996) Surveying principles and applications (4 Ed). Prentice Hall, 257p

Lin S, Jing C, Coles NA, Chaplot V, Moore NJ, Wu J (2012) Evaluating DEM source and resolution uncertainties in the soil and water assessment tool. Journal of Stoch. Env. Res. Risk Assess 27(1):209–221

Moya Q, Popescu V, Solomatine I, Bociort L (2013) Cloud and cluster computing in uncertainty analysis of integrated flood models. Journal of Hydroinfmatic 15:55–69

Pappenberger F, Matgen P, Beven KJ, Henry JB, Pfister L, Fraipont P (2006) Influence of uncertain boundary conditions and model structure on flood inundation predictions. Journal of Advanced Water Resour 29(10):1430–1449

Patro S, Chatterjee C, Singh R, Raghuwanshi NS (2009) Hydrodynamic modelling of a large flood-prone system in India with limited data. Journal of Hydrological Process 23:2774–2791

Saksena S, Merwade V (2015) Incorporating the effect of DEM resolution and accuracy for improved flood inundation mapping. Journal of Hydrology 530:180–194

Sanders BF (2007) Evaluation of on-line DEMs for flood inundation modeling. Journal of Advanced Water Resour 30(8):1831–1843

Saghafian B, Ghermez Cheshmeh B (2008) Spatial variation of flood severity index. Iran-Water Resources Research 4(1):28-39 (In Persian)

Schumann G, Matgen P, Cutler MEJ, Black A, Hoffmann L, Pfister L (2008) Comparison of remotely sensed water stages from LiDAR, topographic contours and SRTM. ISPRS J. Photogramm. Remote Sens 63(3):283–296

Tarekegn TH, Haile AT, Rientjes T, Reggiani P, Alkema D (2010) Assessment of an ASTER generated DEM for 2D flood modelling. International Journal of Applied Earth Obs. Geoinf 12:457–465

US Army Corps of Engineers (2010) HEC-RAS river analysis system hydraulic reference manual. Version 4.1. Hydrologic Engineering Center, Davis, California, 411p

US Army Corps of Engineers (2016) HEC-RAS river analysis system 2D modeling user’s manual. Version 5.0. Hydrologic Engineering Center, Davis, California, 171p

Vaze J, Teng J, Spencer G (2010) Impact of DEM accuracy and resolution on topographic indices. Journal of Environmental Modelling and Software 25:1086–1098

Werner MGF (2001) Impact of grid size in GIS based flood extent mapping using 1-D flow model. Journal of Physics and Chemistry of the Earth (B) 26:517–522

Wilson MD, Atkinson PM (2005) The use of elevation data in flood inundation modelling: a comparison of ERS interferometric SAR and combined contour and differential GPS data. International Journal of River Basin Management 3:3–20