ارزیابی ظرفیت یادگیری اجتماعی در نهاد آب در حوضه‌ آبریز طشک – بختگان

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه تربیت مدرس تهران

2 دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، گروه مهندسی منابع آب

3 دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

چکیده

هدف مقاله حاضر ارزیابی ساختار نهاد آب در حوضه‌آبریز طشک-بختگان (در دو بخش نهاد رسمی و غیر رسمی) از منظر چارچوب یادگیری اجتماعی است. برای ارزیابی نهاد غیررسمی، خشک‌سالی 1386-1387 به‌عنوان تغییر فیزیکی وارده به سیستم در نظر گرفته شد و واکنش نهاد آب در بخش غیررسمی نسبت به این تغییر مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفت. در بخش نهاد رسمی بررسی شد که چطور مجموعه قوانین مربوط به آب در مقیاس محلی، سیستم منابع آب را تحت تأثیر قرار داده است و این ساختار متکی به نهاد رسمی در سطح ملی بوده و ظرفیت یادگیری پایینی دارد. در بخش نهاد غیررسمی، به‌طورکلی در بالادست این حوضه به دلیل اینکه هنوز منابع آب به نسبت کافی وجود دارد لذا مؤلفه‌های فرآیند یادگیری اجتماعی در سطوح پایینی ارزیابی شدند. اما در پایین‌دست به علت شدت تغییر وارده به سیستم منابع آب، این مؤلفه‌ها در سطح مطلوب‌تری ارزیابی شدند. همچنین ارزیابی مؤلفه‌های خروجی یادگیری اجتماعی نشان داد محدوده‌های پایین‌دست از ظرفیت یادگیری اجتماعی بالاتر (حلقه‌ی دوگانه و سه‌گانه یادگیری) نسبت به محدوده‌های بالادست برخوردارند و گرایش این اقدامات در پایین‌دست به سمت حفاظت بهتر منابع آب سوق پیدا کرده‌اند و از وسعت فردی فراتر رفته و به‌طور مشارکتی و جمعی عمل نموده‌اند. برای نهاد آب حوضه‌آبریز طشک – بختگان پیشنهاد می‌گردد مکانیسم‌های تاثیرگذار و مستتر در قوانین بخش آب اصلاح شوند، حکمرانی ملی و متمرکز به حکمرانی محلی و ساختارهای مشارکتی و تعاملی انتقال یابد، نهادهای خصوصی و مردمی فعال شوند و درنهایت مؤلفه‌های فرآیند یادگیری که در سطح پایینی ارزیابی شدند بهبود یابند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Assessment of social learning capacity of water institution in the Tashk-Bakhtegan basin

نویسندگان [English]

  • Saman Moghimi Benhangi 1
  • Ali Bagheri 2
  • Leili Abolhasani 3
1 Tarbiat Modares Univerdity
2 Tarbiat Modares University, Department of Water Resources Engineering
3 Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
چکیده [English]

Adopting a social learning framework, this study aims to assess the water institution (both formal and informal) in the Tashk-Bakhtegan basin. The social learning loops, orientation and direction features were adopted to assess the formal institution. To assess the informal institution, the drought of 2008 was considered as the change affected the system. The responses of informal water institution to that change were then assessed. For formal institutions, the results showed that the water laws in the local level have put pressure on the local water resources. This structure relies on the national authorities and has low level of learning capacity. In the informal sector, the components of social learning process were generally found low in the upstream, but at much better levels in the downstream. The assessment of social learning outputs components showed that the downstream sub-regions were at a higher level of social learning capacity comparing with the upstream (double and triple loops of learning are active), and the responses were oriented towards better conservation of water resources. Furthermore, the width of those responses went beyond individual levels to collective and participating levels. For the water institution of the Tashk-Bakhtegan basin, this paper suggests that implied mechanisms of water laws needs to be modified, national and centralized governance requires to be transformed to participatory and cooperative structures, private and public institutions need to be initiated, and finally the components of social learning process, that were found at a low level, require to be improved.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Water Resources Management
  • Social Learning
  • Triple Loops of learning
  • Water Institution
  • Tashk-Bakhtegan Basin

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