تأثیر برنامه های آموزشی-ترویجی بر رفتار حفاظت آب توسط کشاورزان (مورد مطالعه: کشاورزان دهستان زالوآب‌ شهرستان روانسر)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار/ رشته ترویج و آموزش کشاورزی، گروه اقتصاد کشاورزی، دانشگاه کردستان.

2 فارغ التحصیل کارشناسی ارشد/ رشته ترویج و آموزش کشاورزی از دانشگاه کردستان.

3 دانشجوی دکتری/ رشته ترویج و آموزش کشاورزی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس.

چکیده

هدف اصلی پژوهش حاضر، بررسی تأثیر برنامه‌های آموزشی- ترویجی بر دانش، نگرش و رفتار کشاورزان در زمینه حفاظت آب کشاورزی با استفاده از نظریه رفتار برنامه‌ریزی شده بود. جامعه آماری پژوهش، شامل 420 نفرکشاورز دهستان زالوآب شهرستان روانسر استان کرمانشاه که طی سالهای 1390 الی 1394 در برنامه‌های آموزشی ترویجی حفاظت آب مشارکت داشتند، بود که با استفاده از روش نمونه‌گیری تصادفی ساده و با استفاده از فرمول کوکران، 95 نفر از آنان انتخاب گردیدند؛ سپس به همین تعداد 95 نفر کشاورز که در هیچ نوع برنامه آموزشی ترویجی حفاظت آب در منطقه شرکت نکرده بودند به صورت تصادفی طبقه‌ای با انتساب متناسب انتخاب گردید. به این ترتیب 190 نفر کشاورز مورد مطالعه قرار گرفت. داده‌ها در نیمه دوم سال 1394و از طریق پرسشنامه معتبر و با پایایی بین 78/0 تا96/0 برای مقیاس‌های مختلف پرسشنامه جمع‌آوری گردید. لازم به ذکر است که برای پایای مقیاسهای مختلف پرسشنامه از ضریب آلفای کرنباخ استفاده شد. نتایج آزمون t نشان داد بهره‌بردارانی که در کلاس‌های آموزشی- ترویجی در زمینه حفاظت آب کشاورزی شرکت داشته‌اند، به مراتب دانش بالاتر، نگرش مساعدتر و رفتار مناسب‌تری در زمینه حفاظت آب کشاورزی دارند. همچنین تحلیل مسیر نشان داد شرکت در کلاس‌های آموزشی- ترویجی، بیشترین تأثیر را بر رفتار بهره‌برداران پیرامون حفاظت آب کشاورزی دارد. در این راستا پیشنهادهایی در رابطه با طراحی و اجرای برنامه‌های آموزشی- ترویجی به منظور بالابردن سطح دانش کشاورزان در زمینه حفاظت آب کشاورزی و نیز بهبود نگرش و رفتار آنان نسبت به حفاظت آب کشاورزی ارائه گردید.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Influence of Extension Training Programs on Water Conservation Behavior by Farmers (The Case of Zaloo-ab Farmers in Ravansar)

نویسندگان [English]

  • F. Eskandari 1
  • Z. Karimi 2
  • K. Khaledi 3
1 Assistant Professor in Agricultural Extension and Education, Department of Agricultural Economics, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj, Iran.
2 MSc. Graduate in Agricultural Extension and Education, Department of Agricultural Economics, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj, Iran.
3 Ph.D. Student, Department of Agricultural Extension and Education, Faculty of Agriculture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.
چکیده [English]

The main objective of this survey was to investigate the impact of extension training programs on knowledge, attitude and behavior of farmers towards water management using theory of planned behavior. Target population included 420 farmers in zaloab rural district from Ravansar, Kermanshah province who had participated in a couple of extension training programs related to agricultural water conservation, implemented in the region during 2011-2015 time-period. Applying simple random sampling method 95 farmers were selected according to Cochran formula and then, equally 95 farmers, who had not participated in any extension training programs related to water management, were selected using stratified random sampling method. In this way, 190 farmers were included in the study. Data were collected during second 6-month period in 2015 by a questionnaire validity of which was confirmed by a panel of experts in the areas of agricultural extension and water engineering. Reliability of the questionnaire was approved applying Cronbach Alpha coefficient which was estimated between 0.78 and 0.96 for scales of the questionnaire. Findings of t-test revealed that farmers, who had participated in extension training programs on water management, have more knowledge, more positive attitude and more appropriate behavior towards agricultural water management. Furthermore, path analysis showed that participation in extension training programs has the highest influence on farmers’ behavior concerning agricultural water conservation. Accordingly, it is recommended to invest more on extension training programs in the region to change attitude, knowledge and behavior of farmers towards agricultural water management.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Extension training effectiveness
  • Farmer behavior
  • Theory of Planned Behavior
  • Water conservation

Abdolmaleki M, Pezeshkirad Gh, Chizari M (2007) Effectiveness of short-term extension training programs on rangeland owners in Toiserkan. Agricultural Sciences 13(1):39-53 (In Persian)

Ajzen I (1985) Form intention to actions: A theory of planned behavior. In: Kuhl and Beckman (Eds.)‚ Action- control: From cognition to behavior  (pp. 11- 39). Heidelberg: Springer

Amani A, Chizari M (2011) Identifying an appropriate model for predicting adoption of sustainable management of agricultural water resources by wheat farmers in Ahwaz. Iranian Journal of Agricultural Economics and Development Research 19(73):77-100 (In Persian)

Bijani M, and Hayati D (2015) Farmers’ perceptions toward agricultural water conflict: The case of Doroodzan dam irrigation network, Iran. Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology 17(3):561-575

Burton RJF (2004) Reconceptualising the ‘Behavioral Approach’ in Agricultural Studies: A Socio-Psychological Perspective. Rural Studies 20:359–371

Clark WA, Finley JC (2008) Determinants of water conservation intention in Blagoevgrad, Bulgaria. Society and Natural Resource 20(7):613-627

Forozani M, Karami E (2012) Knowledge on water management by wheat producers in Marvdasht city, Fars province. Journal of Agricultural Education Management Research 21:34-43 (In Persian)

Ghiasvand F, Mirakzadeh AA, Akbari M (2013) Analyzing Qazvini farmers’ behavior towards wheat farming monitoring project: application of theory of planned behavior. Agricultural Extension and Education Research 6(22):21-35 (In Persian)

Gilg A, Barr S (2006) Behavioral attitudes towards water saving? Evidence from a study of environmental actions. Ecological Economics 57(3):400-414

Hedjazi SI, Eshaghi SR (2014) Explaining environmental behavior of farmers from western provinces of Iran based on theory of planned behavior. Iranian Journal of Agricultural Economics and Development Research 45(2):257-267 (In Persian)

Heidari-e-Sareban v (2011) Socio-economic factors affecting knowledge of farmers on agricultural water management (the case of Meshkinshahr city). Agricultural Extension and Education Research 4:96-111(In Persian)

Jorgensen BS, Martin JF (2015) Understanding farmer intentions to connect to a modernized delivery system in an Australian irrigation district. Environmental Planning and Management 58(3):513-536

Kaiser FG (2006) A moral extension of the theory of planned behavior: norms and anticipated feelings of regret in conservationism. Personality and Individual Differences 41(1):71-81

Khanpaieh M, Karami E (2015) Determinants of farmers’ attitude towards farm sustainability dimensions under wastewater irrigation. Iranian Agricultural Extension and Education Journal 11(1):89-99 (In Persian)

Lam SP (1999) Predicting intentions to conserve water from the theory of planned behavior, perceived moral obligation, and perceived water right. Applied Social Psychology 29(5):1058-1071

Lam SP (2006) Predicting intention to save water: theory of planned behavior, response efficacy, vulnerability, and perceived efficiency of alternative solutions. Applied Social Psychology 36(11):2803-2824

Lynne GD, Casey CF, Hodges A, Rahmani M (1995) Conservation Technology Adoption Decisions and the Theory of Planned Behavior. Economic Psychology 16:581–598

Mousavi F, Pezeshkirad Gh, Chizari M (2008) Relationship between social factors and farmers’ attitude towards sustainable water management. Iranian Agricultural Extension and Education Journal 4(2):43-52 (In Persian)

Nabi-afjadi S, Shabanali-fami H, Rezvanfar A (2015) Analyzing utilization of agricultural water management technology in Falaverjan. Iranian Journal of Irrigation and Drainage 2(9):242-251 (In Persian)

Nigbur D, Lyons E, Uzzell D (2010) Attitudes, norms, identity and environmental behavior: using an expanded theory of planned behavior to predict participation in a Kerbside recycling program. British Journal of Social Psychology 49(2):259-284

Panahi F (2012) Analyzing factors affecting productive agricultural water management in Iran. Agricultural Extension and Education Research 5(1):101-117 (In Persian)

Pelling EL, White KM (2009) The theory of planned behavior applied to young people’s use of social networking web sites. Cyber Psychology and Behavior 12(6):755- 759

Pourzand A (2003) Improving water consumption management: the first stage for achieving food security. In: proc. Of 11th Conference of Iranian National Committee on Irrigation and Drainage, 24-25 December 2003, Tehran, 111-125 (In Persian)

Salehi S, Chizari M, Sadighi H, Bijani M (2017) Assessment of agricultural groundwater users in Iran: a cultural environmental bias Hydrogeology Journal. In press

Shahroudi A, Chizari M (2008) Behavioral dimension of farmers regarding optimum agricultural water management in Khoransan province. Iranian Agricultural Extension and Education Journal 4(2):81-99 (In Persian)

Shahroudi A, Chizari M, Pezeshkirad Gh (2009) Factors affecting sugar beet farmers’ behavior towards soil management in Khorasan province. Iranian Journal of Agricultural Economics and Development Research 40(3):101-115 (In Persian)

Trumbo CW, O’Keefe GJ (2005) Intention to conserve water: environmental values, reasoned action, and information effects across time. Society and Natural Resource 18(6):573-585

United Nations (2008) World water development report united nation's natural water cycle. Tehran. Ministry of Energy. Retrieved from http:// www.khrw.ir/12-10.asp/

Valizadeh N, Bijani M, Abbasi E (2017) An Environmental Psychological Analysis of Farmers' Participatory-Oriented Behavior toward Water Conservation. Iranian Journal of Water Resources Research (In Press) (In Persian)

Yazdanpanah M, Hayati D, Hochrainer-Stigler S, Zamani Gh (2014) Understanding farmers' intention and behavior regarding water conservation in the Middle-East and North Africa: A case study in Iran. Environmental Management 135(15):63-72

Yazdanpanah M, Hayati D, Zamani Gh, Karbalaee F, Hochrainer-Stigler S (2013) Water management from tradition to second modernity: an analysis of the water crisis in Iran. Environment, Development and Sustainability 15(6):1605–1621

Zhou SH, Herzfeld T, Zhang Y, Bingchuan H (2008) Affecting farmers’ decisions to adopt a water-saving technology. Canadian Journal of Agricultural Economics 3(4):51-61