توزیع اجزای باران به تاج‌بارش، ساقاب و باران‌ربایی در درختان انار و اهمیت آن در مطالعات اکوهیدرولوژی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار/ گروه باغبانی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد ساوه، ساوه، ایران.

2 دانشجوی دکتری/ اکوهیدرولوژی جنگل، گروه جنگلداری و اقتصاد جنگل، دانشکده منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه تهران، ایران.

3 دکتری/ جنگل شناسی و اکولوژی جنگل، دانشکده منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه تهران، ایران.

چکیده

محاسبه‌ی مقادیر توزیع اجزای بارندگی در هنگام برخورد با تاج‌پوشش درختان به سه قسمت تاج‌بارش، ساقاب و باران‌ربایی از مباحث نوین در مطالعات اکوهیدرولوژی و منابع آب به‌شمار می‌آید. هدف از این پژوهش، محاسبه تاج‌بارش، ساقاب و باران‌ربایی درختان انار شش ساله (فاصله کاشت 3×5/2 متر) رقم ملس ترش ساوه، در شهرستان ساوه با اقلیم ‌خشک از دی ماه 1393 لغایت دی ماه 1394 بود. برای اندازه‌گیری مقدار باران، از 10 باران‌سنج و برای اندازه‌گیری تاج‌بارش 50 باران‌سنج (در یک قطعه‌نمونه 500 متر مربعی) استفاده شد و متوسط ساقاب 9 درخت به‌عنوان متوسط ساقاب درختان در نظر گرفته شد. در این مطالعه 46 رخداد بارندگی با مقدار تجمعی 1/159 میلی‌متر اندازه‌گیری شد که بیشترین، کمترین و متوسط بارندگی به ترتیب 8/11، 5/0 و 5/3 میلی‌متر ثبت شد. در کل دوره‌ی پژوهش، سهم هر یک از مقادیر تاج‌بارش، ساقاب و باران‌ربایی از بارش به‌ترتیب 4/65، 7/4 و 9/29 درصد بدست آمد. در دوره-ی برگ‌دار (1 اردییهشت تا 30 آبان) این اعداد به ترتیب 1/62، 9/2 و 0/35 درصد و در دوره‌ی بی‌برگی به ترتیب 5/67، 8/5 و 7/26 درصد حاصل شدند. در کلیه‌ی سنجه‌های زمانی مورد بررسی، بهترین رابطه‌ی برازش داده شده بین مقدار باران و درصد نسبی تاج-بارش: لگاریتمی مثبت، درصد نسبی ساقاب: چندجمله‌ای مثبت و درصد نسبی باران‌ربایی: توانی منفی مشاهده شد. از آن‌جایی که در اقالیم خشک و نیمه‌خشک، اصلی‌ترین و اقتصادی‌ترین راه تامین آب مورد نیاز گیاهان، باران است، بنابراین لازم است بیش‌ترین بهره-وری ممکن را از آب باران داشته باشیم.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Rainfall Partitioning into Throughfall, Stemflow, and Interception of Pomegranate and its Importance in Ecohydrology

نویسندگان [English]

  • L. Hakimi 1
  • M. Sadeghi 2
  • E. khosropour 3
1 Assistant Professor of Horticulture, College of Agriculture, Saveh Branch, Islamic Azad University, Saveh, Iran.
2 PhD Candidate, Forest Ecohydrology, Department of Forestry and Forest Economics, University of Tehran, Iran.
3 PhD, Department of Forestry and Forest Economics, University of Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Computing of rainfall partitioning into throughfall, stemflow, and interception are new discussions in ecohydrology and water resources studies of horticulture. The aim of this research was to compute of throughfall, stemflow, and interception of Malas-e-Torsh-e-Saveh pomegranate 6-years old (plant spacing 2.5×3 m) during January 2015 to Dec 2015 in Saveh city with an arid climate. To measure gross rainfall and throughfall, 10 and 50 manual rain-gauges (in a plot with an area was 500 m2) were used, respectively, and stemflow was measured using average of 9 individual trees equaled to the stemflow amount of trees. A total of 46 rainfall events were measured (cumulative: 159.1 mm) over the study period and rainfall magnitude varied from 0.5 to 11.8 mm with average of 3.5 mm. Over the measurement period, the cumulative percentage of throughfall, stemflow, and interception were 65.4, 4.7, and 29.0%, respectively. During the leafed period (21 April to 21 November), the corresponding values were 62.1, 2.9, and 35.0% vs. 67.5, 5.8, and 26.7% during the leafless period. In the overall time scales, the most suitable relationship between gross rainfall and rational throughfall percentage, rational stemflow percentage, and rational interception percentage were observed as positive logarithmic, positive polynomial, and negative power, respectively. Since in the arid and semiarid climates, the most economical and main way to supply water of plants are gross rainfall, therefore, it is necessary to have the highest possible efficiency from rain water.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Arid climate
  • Leafed period
  • Leafless period
  • Malas-e-Torsh-e-Saveh pomegranate
  • Saveh

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