تأثیر خشکسالی بر کیفیت و سطح آب زیرزمینی دشت قروه و چهاردولی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار/ گروه علوم خاک دانشگاه ارومیه.

2 کارشناسی ارشد/ مهندسی منابع آب، دانشگاه تبریز.

3 کارشناسی ارشد/ زمین شناسی زیست محیطی، دانشگاه ارومیه.

4 دانشجوی دکتری/ گروه علوم خاک، دانشگاه تبریز.

چکیده

با توجه به ماهیت جغرافیایی کشور، خشک‌سالی از جمله پدیده‌هایی است که وقوع آن اجتناب ناپذیر می باشد. اما می‌توان به کمک آمار و اطلاعات ثبت شده وقوع آن را تا حد امکان پیش‌بینی کرد. با در نظر گرفتن اهمیت خشکسالی و اثرات آن بر منابع آب‌های زیرزمینی، در این پژوهش تأثیر خشکسالی بر کیفیت آب‌های زیرزمینی و سطح ایستابی دشت قروه و چهادولی طی 25 سال گذشته مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. برای این منظور از متغیّرهای اقلیمی بارش ماهانه (91-1365) و شاخص بارش استاندارد (SPI) برای یافتن خشک‌سالی‌ها و ترسالی‌ها استفاده شد. طبقه‌بندی کیفیت آب زیرزمینی دشت قروه و چهاردولی با استفاده از شاخص‌های هدایت الکتریکی (EC) و نسبت جذب سدیم (SAR)، به کمک نمودار ویلکاکس انجام شد. همچنین برای مقایسه و پایش تغییرات هدایت الکتریکی (EC) و SAR آب زیرزمینی و سطح ایستابی در سال‌های شاخص خشکسالی و ترسالی، با استفاده از روش کریجینگ معمولی نقشه‌های پراکنش آن‌ها ترسیم شدند. نتایج این پژوهش نشان داد که کیفیت آب آبخوان‌های قروه و چهاردولی در دو کلاس C2S1 و C3S1 بوده و کیفیت در ترسالی به دلیل افزایش برداشت از چاه‌ها بهتر نشده است. سطح آب زیرزمینی در طی دوره آماری بر اثر برداشت از آن دارای روند نزولی معادل با 49 سانتی متر در سال می‌باشد. بیشترین افت‌ها در سال 1390 نسبت به سال 1365 در قسمتهای شرقی و جنوبی دشت رخ داده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Impact of Drought on Groundwater Quality and Groundwater Level in Qorveh-Chardoli Plain

نویسندگان [English]

  • F. Asadzadeh 1
  • M. Kaki 2
  • S. Shakiba 3
  • B. Raei 4
1 Assistant Professor, Department of Soil Science, Urmia University, Iran
2 M.Sc. Alumni, Department of Water Engineering, University of Tabriz, Iran
3 M.Sc. Alumni, Department of Geology, Urmia University, Iran
4 Ph.D. Student, Department of Soil Science, University of Tabriz, Iran
چکیده [English]

Considering the climatic condition of the Iran, drought is an inevitable phenomenon. However, the probability of the drought occurrence would be predicted using the recorded meteorological data. Due to the drought importance, and its impact on groundwater resources, in this study, the influence of drought on groundwater quality and ground water table of Qorveh-Chardoli plain was evaluated during the recent 25 years period. Monthly precipitation data (1987-2013) were applied to calculate the standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) which was used to find the drought and wet years. Groundwater quality was also determined using electrical conductivity and sodium adsorption ratio and considering the Wilcox diagram. Kriging map of the water quality and water table were produced for wet and drought years. Groundwater quality of the Qurveh-Chardoli aquifer were classified as C2S1 and C3S1. There was not a significant change in the water quality even during the wet period with raising water table. Groundwater level has changed 29.35m (increasing) and 13.39m(decreasing) during the drought and wet periods, respectively. The overall rate of the water level decreasing during the study period was 49 cmyear-1. The greatest decrease in water level were observed for eastern and southern parts of the plain.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • SPI Index
  • Water Table
  • Water Quality
  • Qurveh-Chardoli aquifer

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