تجارب و پیامدهای انتقال ‌آب بین‌حوضه‌ای در جهان

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استاد /گروه علوم و مهندسی آبخیزداری، دانشکده منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، نور، مازندران، ایران.

2 دانشجوی دکتری/ علوم و مهندسی آبخیزداری، دانشکده منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، نور، مازندران، ایران

3 دانشجوی دکتری /علوم و مهندسی آبخیزداری، دانشکده منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، نور، مازندران، ایران

چکیده

پژوهش حاضر به بررسی تجارب جهانی حدود 170 پروژه انتقال ‌آب بین‌حوضه‌ای با شرایط اکولوژیکی متفاوت پرداخته است. نتایج بررسی، دلالت بر اوج عملیات اجرایی پروژه‌های انتقال آب بین‌حوضه‌ای در جهان در قرن 19 داشته است. نتایج تحلیل پروژه‌ها نشان داد که 75/۴۳، 75/18، 5/12 و 25 درصد از پروژه‌ها به‌ترتیب با اهدف تأمین آب شرب شهری، تأمین آب کشاورزی و تولید انرژی، اهداف محیط‌زیستی و چند منظوره طراحی و اجرا شد‌‌ه‌اند. گرچه در بسیاری از کشورهای پیشرفته نسبت اجرای پروژه‌های مذکور در خصوص تأمین آب شرب به بیش از 80 درصد کل پروژه‌های انتقال آب رسیده است. بر اساس آمار موجود بیش از 27 درصد میزان حجم آب برداشت شده در دنیا توسط پروژه‌های انتقال آب بین حوضه‌ای جابه‌جا می‌شوند. در ایران نیز بر اساس اطلاعات جمع‌آوری شده موجود، 35/6 کیلومتر مکعب در سال حجم آب انتقالی بوده که اکثر پروژه‌های انتقال آب بین‌ حوضه‌ای برای تأمین اهداف کشاورزی همراه با احداث تونل‌های طولانی اجرا شده‌اند. مبتنی بر نتایج موجود، از آن‌جاییکه طرح‌های انتقال آب بین‌حوضه‌ای مستقیماً مدیریت حوضه‌ی مبدأ و مقصد را تحت تاثیر قرار داده است، اغلب در بلندمدت منجر به تضعیف شرایط اجتماعی-اقتصادی و محیط‌زیستی در یکی از دو حوضه شده است. بر همین اساس اجرای پروژه‌های انتقال آب بین‌حوضه‌ای تنها در شرایط اضطرار و عدم وجود راه‌حل جایگزین و تنها در صورت ضرورت تأمین آب شرب با شناخت همه‌جانبه و پتانسیل‌های منطقه، تنها با رویکرد مدیریت جامع و نظام‌مند، لحاظ جنبه‌های محیط‌زیستی، اقتصادی، اجتماعی، سیاسی و نهایتاً در بلندمدت قابلیت طرح را خواهند داشت.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Experiences and Consequences of Inter-Basin Water Transfer Worldwide

نویسندگان [English]

  • S.H.R. Sadeghi 1
  • S. Kazemi Kia 2
  • H. Kheirfam 2
  • Z. Hazbavi 3
1 Professor, Department of Watershed Management Engineering, Faculty of Natural Resources, Tarbiat Modares University, Noor, Mazandaran, Iran
2 PhD Candidate of Watershed Management Sciences and Engineering, Faculty of Natural Resources, Tarbiat Modares University, Noor, Mazandaran, Iran.
3 PhD Candidate of Watershed Management Sciences and Engineering, Faculty of Natural Resources, Tarbiat Modares University, Noor, Mazandaran, Iran.
چکیده [English]

The present study has reviewed the characteristics of some 170 inter-basin water transfer projects in various parts of the world with different ecological conditions. The minute reviewing of existing experiences indicated that the apogee of implementing inter-basin water transfer projects had been made in the 19th century. According to the results, 43.75, 18.75, 12.5 and 25 percent of the projects have been implemented for drinking, agricultural and energy production, environmental and multi-purpose water supply purposes, respectively. However, in many developed countries more than 80 percent of the inter-basin water transfer projects were implemented for providing drinking water. According to the data, in the world more than 27 percent of the water withdrawal capacity is transferred with inter-basin water transfer projects. In Iran, based on available data, the capacity of inter-basin water transfer project is 6.35 km3 per annum mainly transferred for agricultural purposes through constructing long tunnels. Since, inter-basin water transfer projects directly affected the management of origin and destination basins, the socioeconomic and environmental conditions were often weakened in source or destination in the long term. Consequently, inter-basin water transfer projects would be applied only in emergency conditions, the lack of any other alternative solution and emergency drinking water supply. It will be also possible to imply with integrated recognition of study regions conditions and its potentials, having comprehensive and systematic management approach and ultimately with consideration of environmental, economical, social and political dimensions of study regions.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Water Transfer Projects
  • water supply
  • Water Demand and Supply Management
  • Water Resource Management
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