ارزیابی اقتصادی سناریوی تغییر الگوی کشت در حوزۀ آبخیز سیمینه‌رود به منظور اصلاح مدیریت آب کشاورزی: تلاشی برای احیای دریاچۀ اورمیه با استفاده از سازوکار PES

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش‌آموخته کارشناسی ارشد رشته مهندسی آبخیزداری، دانشکده منابع طبیعی دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، نور، ایران.

2 دانشیار / گروه علوم و مهندسی آبخیزداری، دانشکده منابع طبیعی دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، نور، ایران

3 استادیار / گروه اقتصاد محیط‌زیست، دانشگاه علوم و تحقیقات، تهران، ایران

چکیده

با توجه به خشک‌شدن دریاچه اورمیه، هم‌اینک راهکارهای متعددی در دست بررسی و تدوین هستند. بدون تردید، کاهش تقاضای آب در بخش کشاورزی از طریق برنامه‌هایی همچون «تغییر الگوی‌کشت» را باید از جمله راهکارهای جدی تلقی کرد که تحقق آن، نیازمند انجام ارزیابی اقتصادی ابعاد و پیامدهای مربوط به اجرای چنین برنامه‌ای است. در پژوهش حاضر، تلاش شده تا در قالب ابزار سیاستی «پرداخت بهای خدمات اکوسیستمی» (PES)، نتایج ارزیابی فنی و اقتصادی راهکار تغییر الگوی کشت در یکی از زیرحوضه‌های دریاچۀ اورمیه، مورد تجزیه و تحلیل قرار گیرند. برای این منظور، پس از استخراج نقشه کاربری اراضی و شناسایی عرصه‌های مورد نظر، اقدام به جمع‎آوری اطلاعات موردنیاز برای ارزیابی برنامه PES با استفاده از تکنیک تلفیقی مصاحبه-پرسش‌نامه گردیده ‌است. طی عملیات میدانی، تعداد 398 فقره پرسش‌نامه تکمیل و از میان سازوکارهای قابل پیشنهاد در قالب برنامه PES، پرداخت به کشاورزان به منظور تغییر الگوی کشت با استفاده از سه نوع گونه روغنی کلزا، سویا و گلرنگ جهت تصحیح مدیریت منابع آبی در حوضه آبریز سیمینه‌رود مطرح شده و نتایج حاصله، از نظر اقتصادی، مورد ارزیابی واقع شده‌اند. نتایج این تحقیق نشان‌ داد که فقط پیشنهاد تغییر الگوی کشت برای استفاده از گونۀ گلرنگ از توجیه اقتصادی  و فنی لازم برخوردار است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Economic Assessment of Change in Cropping Pattern in Siminehrud Sub-basin to Improve Agricultural Water Management: An Effort to Restore Urmia Lake Using PES Scheme

نویسندگان [English]

  • A. Daneshi 1
  • M. Vafakhah 2
  • M. Panahi 3
1 MSc. Graduate in Watershed Management Engineering, Faculty of Natural Resources, Tarbiat Modares University, Nour, Iran
2 Associate Professor, Watershed Management Engineering Group, Faculty of Natural Resources, Tarbiat Modarres University, Nour, Iran
3 Associate Professor, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Due to the drying up issue of Urmia Lake, currently several options are under review. Decreasing water demand in agricultural sector through programs like “change in cropping patterns” may undoubtedly be considered as a notable option which requires an economic assessment of further implications of it. In the present research, based on Payment for Ecosystem Services (PES) policy tool, we attempted to analyze the results of a technical and economic assessment of likely changes in cropping pattern in a sub-basin of Urmia Lake. For this purpose, first a GIS based land use map was prepared and the suitable areas was identified. Then all information required for assessing the PES scheme were collected according to an Interview-Questionnaire mixed technique. During the field survey phase, 398 questionnaires were completed by farmers in Siminehrud sub-basin. Among various options of PES, payment to farmers to encourage them to change the cropping pattern using three oily plant species (soya, canola and safflower) has been proposed. Then the results have been analyzed in terms of economic impacts. The findings of this study showed that only changing the crop pattern to consider safflower is economically feasible and also technically efficient.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Urmia Lake
  • PES
  • Water requirement
  • Economic valuation
  • Crop pattern change

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