نقش منابع آبی در مکان‌گزینی محوطه‌های دور‌ه هخامنشی دشت سیستان

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری باستان‌شناسی، گروه باستان‌شناسی، واحد علوم و تحقیقات، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تهران، ایران.

2 دانشیار گروه باستان‌شناسی و پژوهشکده علوم باستان‌شناسی، دانشگاه سیستان و بلوچستان، زاهدان، ایران.

3 استادیار گروه باستان‌شناسی و پژوهشکده علوم باستان‌شناسی، دانشکده ادبیات و علوم انسانی، دانشگاه سیستان و بلوچستان، زاهدان، ایران.

چکیده

دشت سیستان از دیرباز به‌واسطه دارا بودن منابع آبی فراوان یکی از مناطق مهم جهت استقرارگزینی انسان‌ها بوده است. تا کنون مطالعه جامعی راجع به ارتباط بین منابع آبی و محوطه‌ها انجام نگرفته است، از این‌رو هدف کلی پژوهش حاضر؛ بررسی رابطه متقابل محوطه‌های دوره هخامنشی و محیط طبیعی و به‌طور خاص نحوه استقرارگزینی محوطه‌ها بر اساس مؤلفه آب است. این پژوهش به روش توصیفی-تحلیلی- تاریخی انجام گرفته و برای نیل به این مقصود از نرم افزار GIS استفاده شد. به‌منظور دست‌یابی به اهداف پژوهش پس از مطالعه شرایط محیطی، شش متغیر شامل: نوع منابع آبی، فاصله از منابع آبی، شیب زمین، نوع خاک، زمین‌شناسی و وسعت محوطه‌ها بررسی شدند و نتایج به‌دست آمده، گویای نقش مؤثر منابع آب سطحی در مکان‌گزینی و وسعت محوطه‌ها است. وجود منابع آبی، شیب ملایم و به تبع آن، سهولت سرازیری آب در مناطق مختلف دشت، ظرفیت ایجاد کانال‌های انشعابی جهت حفظ فاصله مناسب از رودخانه که از خصوصیات مخروط افکنه‌ها می‌باشند و همچنین، استقرار روی تراس رودخانه‌ای جهت دوری از خطر سیلاب از جمله عواملی هستند که موجب می‌شدند این منطقه علی رغم فقدان سفره‌های آب زیرزمینی و وابستگی مردم به منابع آب سطحی، تبدیل به یکی از مناطق جاذب جمعیت گردد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Water Resources Role in Location of Achaemenid Settlements in the Sistan Plain

نویسندگان [English]

  • Shabnam Fathi Sogoli Tapeh 1
  • Mehdi Mortazavi 2
  • Fariba Mosapour Negari 3
1 Ph.D. Student of Archaeology, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.
2 Associate Professor, Department of Archaeology and Archaeological Sciences Research Center, University of Sistan and Baluchestan, Zahedan, Iran.
3 Assistant Professor, Department of Archaeology and Archaeological Sciences Research Center, Faculty of Literature and Humanities, University of Sistan and Baluchestan, Zahedan, Iran.
چکیده [English]

For a long time, the Sistan Plain has been one of the important areas for men’s settlement due to abundant of water resources. However, this relation between water resources and settlements has not been comprehensively studied so far. Hence, the present survey aims to study the reciprocal relation between the Achaemenid settlements and natural environment in areas specially based on water component. The research has been carried out through the descriptive-analytical and historical method using GIS software. To reach the research goals after checking the environmental conditions, six variables including water resources types, distance from water resources, land slope, soil type, geology and settlements area were studied and the obtained results indicated the effective role of the surface water resources in settlement placement and extents. The presence of water resources, gentle land slopes and consequently ease of water flow down to the different areas of the plain, the potential to build branching canals to keep the suitable distance from the river which are the characteristics of alluvial fans, as well as settlement on the alluvial terrace to avoid flood hazards are among the factors which turned the area into population absorbing center despite the absence of aquifers and heavy dependence on surface water resources.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Sistan plain
  • Achaemenid Era
  • geographical environment
  • Water resources
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