هویت اجتماعی و برساخت مناقشات در بهره‌برداری از منابع آب مشترک

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی مقطع دکتری، گروه مهندسی و مدیریت آب، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس.

2 استادیار گروه مهندسی و مدیریت آب، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس.

3 عضو هیأت علمی وزارت علوم، تحقیقات و فناوری.

چکیده

توجه به نقش مؤلفه‌های اجتماعی بر تعاملات آبی از ملزومات شناخت و مطالعه شرایط پویای حاکم بر مسائل آبی است. تفاوت در ویژگی‌های فرهنگی و هویتی جوامع منجر به ایجاد نگرش‌ها و ارزش‌های متعددی در مواجهه با مسائل آبی شده است. با وجود اهمیت بسزای نقش هویت اجتماعی بر تعاملات آبی، این مسأله در مدیریت منابع آب مورد غفلت جدی واقع شده شده است. شکاف تحقیقاتی مذکور منجر به طرح فرضیه پژوهش حاضر مبنی بر ارتباط مستقیم، متقابل و پویای هویت اجتماعی و شکل‌گیری مناقشات آبی شده است. هدف اصلی این پژوهش، واکاوی نقش هویت اجتماعی در برساخت مناقشات آبی در ضمن بهره‌برداری از منابع آب مشترک و فرامرزی است. برای آزمون فرضیه موردنظر  به مرور نظام‌مند منابع مرتبط در پایگاه‌های اطلاعاتی مختلف و واکاوی نحوه اثرگذاری متقابل هویت اجتماعی و مناقشات آبی پرداخته شد. بر اساس نتایج حاصل، مناقشه یک ویژگی ذاتـی و طبیعی در سیستم‌های آبی است و هویت اجتماعی و مناقشات مخرب/ سازنده آبی در ارتباطی متقابل و پویا با یکدیگر هستند. قطبی شدن هویت‌های اجتماعی در یک حوضه منجر به تقویت پتانسیل ایجاد مناقشات آبی خواهد شد. این در حالی است که  تلاش برای ایجاد هویت جمعی، زمینه‌ساز همکاری بین ذی‌مدخلان و مواجهه کارآمد با مناقشات آبی در حوضه‌های آبریز  مشترک و فرامرزی است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Social Identity and Construction of Conflict in Shared Water Resources Systems

نویسندگان [English]

  • Seyede Simin Mirhashemi Dehkordi 1
  • Hojjat Mianabadi 2
  • Ebrahim Hajiani 3
1 Ph.D. Candidate, Department of Water Engineering and Management, Faculty of Agriculture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.
2 Assistant Professor, Department of Water Engineering and Management, Faculty of Agriculture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.
3 Associate Professor, Ministry of Science, Research and Technology.
چکیده [English]

The role of social components on socio-hydrological water interactions is one of the key elements and essential requirements for study and understanding complex water systems. Different cultural characteristics and diversity of identities in human societies have led to the development of diverse attitudes and values for dealing with water problems. Despite the considerable importance of the role of social identity on water interactions including conflict and cooperation, this issue has been seriously neglected in conflict management in water systems. This research gap has led to the hypothesis of the present study which states that there is a direct, mutual and dynamic relationship between social identity and the formation of water conflicts. The main purpose of this study is to investigate the role of social identity on water conflicts over shared and transboundary river basins. For this purpose, a systematic review of relevant resources in various databases was conducted. According to the results, conflict is an inherent and intrinsic characteristic in water systems. Besides, the social identity and destructive / constructive water conflicts are in a mutual and complex relationship. The polarized of social identities in a river basin will exacerbate the potential of water conflict. However, the effort to create a collective identity can lead to cooperation among stakeholders as well as effective dealing with water conflicts in shared and transboundary river basins.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • identity
  • Social Identity
  • Water conflicts
  • cooperation
  • Shared river basins
  • Transboundary River basins
Abukhater A (2013) Water as a catalyst for peace, transboundary water management and conflict resolution. Routledge
Anam R (2011) A survey of interpersonal trust among Shahriar villagers. M.Sc. Thesis. Al-Zahra University. Al-Zahra University (In Persian)
Ashna H and Rohani M (2011) Iranians cultural identity: From theorical perspective to principles. Iranian Journal of Cultural Reseach 3(4(12)):157-184 (In Persian)
Azadarmaki T and Vakili A (2013) Sociological study around the conceptualization of national identity among Iranian intellectuals. Journal of Socio- Cultural Development Studies 2(1):9-35 (In Persian)
Azarakhsh A, Gholamikia M, Beigi A, and Azarakhsh M (2014) A study of the cognitive concept of identity in the Field of psychology and social psychology (with emphasis on the theories of Erickson, Marcia, Mead and Gypsy). The First Scientific Conference on Educational Sciences and Psychology of Social and Cultural Injuries in Iran (In Persian)
Bidel P and Mahmoudzadeh A (2012) Investigation of the social attitude of Iranian people to Iranian society and its relation to social confidence and individualism- A case study of Mashhad. Journal of Cultural Research 5:31-63 (In Persian)
Biswas AK and Tortajada C (2015) Water security, climate change, and management. Springer
Bond CJ (2014) Positive peace and sustainability in the mining cintext: Beyond the triole bottom line. Journal of Cleaner Production 84:164–173
Carius A, Dabelko GD, and Wolf AT (2004) Water, conflict, and cooperation. The United Nations and Environmental Security ECSP Repor (10)
Cooper T (2003) What is conflict?. Journal of Police Crisis Negotiations, Taylor & Francis Group 3(1):85–100
Darabi A (2015) Constructivism, a theoretical framework for explaining the Iran-US conflict. Foreign Policy 29(2):33-52 (In Persian)
Davoudi AA (2012) The role of collective memory in ethnical conflicts. The Sociology of Iran 13(1):130-152 (In Persian)
FAO (2009) Jordan river basin. Available at: http://www.fao.org/aquastat/en/countries-and-basins/transboundary-river-basins/jordan
Faraji M and Ranjbar Heydari V (2017) Hydropolitics of the Middle East: a Case study of Tigris and Euphrates, Nile and Jordan rivers basins. The Socio-Cultural Research Journal of Rahbord 6(25):311-331 (In Persian)
Farajzade Arnesa M (2019) Analytical conflict mapping in the complex water system of Urmia lake basin. Tarbiat Modares University
Ferrari E, McDonald S, and Osman R (2013) Grand ethiopian Renaissance dam: Implications for Ethiopia and the Nile basin. 16th Annual Conference on Global Economic Analysis, “New Challenges for Global Trade in a Rapidly Changing Word.” Available at: https://www.gtap.agecon.purdue.edu/ resources/res_display.asp?RecordID=4189
Fukuyama F (2018) Identity: Contemporary identity politics and the struggle for recognition. Profile
Galtung J (1969) Peace by peaceful means: peace and conflict, development and civilization. SAGE Publications
Galtung J (1990) Cultural violence. Journal of Peace Research 27(3):291–305
Galtung J (1996) Peace and conflict, development, and civilization. London: SAGE Publications
Ghezelsofli M and Maashashani S (2010) Cultural Iran in the thoughts of Dariush Shaygan. Journal of Political Science 5(4):137-171 (In Persian)
Ghorbani G (2004) National identity based on Master Motahhari’s Opinions. National Studies 18(5(2)) (In Persian), Available at: https://www.sid.ir/fa/journal/ JournalListPaper.aspx?ID=10008
Gleick P and Iceland C (2018) Water, security, and Conflict. Pacific Institute. Available at: https://pacinst.org/publication/water-security-and-conflict/
Grubb HW (1997) The Edwards aquifer: Conflicts surrounding use of a regional water resource. Journal of Contemporary Water Research and Education 106(1)
Guo H, Hobbs BF, Lasater ME, Parker CL, and Winch PJ (2016) System dynamics-based evaluation of interventions to promote appropriate waste disposal behaviors in low-income urban areas: A Baltimore case study. Waste Management, Elsevier Ltd 56(May):547–560
Hadian N and Rigi H (2020) Securitization and international challenges on water in south Asia: A case study of Pakistan. Strategic Studies Quarterly 22(3):131-158 (In Persian)
Hajiani E (2000) Sociological analysis of national identity in Iran and the design of several hypotheses. Quarterly Journal of National Studies 5:193-228 (In Persian)
Hajiani E (2008) Investigating the sources of Iranian identity. University of Tehran (In Persian)
Hajiani E (2013) Sociology of iranian identity. Strategic Research Institute, Department of Cultural and Social Research (In Persian)
Heidarabadi A (2011) Social trust and socio-cultural factors affecting it. Sociology Studies of Youth 1(91):39-66 (In Persian)
İlhan A (2009) Social movements in sustainability transitions (identity, social learning & power in the Spanish and Turkish water domains). Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona
Islam S and Susskind L (2018) Using complexity science and negotiation theory to resolve boundary-crossing water issues. Journal of Hydrology, Elsevier B.V. 562:589–598
Jägerskog A (2013) Transboundary water management- why it is important and why it needs to be developed. Stockholm International Water Institute and United Nations Development Programme Shared Waters Partnership
Jahanbin A and Gorji AA (2019) Norm in the context of legal and social order. Public Law Studies 49(3):777-800 (In Persian)
Jenkins R (1996) Social identity. ROUTLEDGE
Kalpakian J V (2000) Identity, conflict and cooperation in international river basins. Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.), Dissertation, International Studies, Old Dominion University, DOI: 10.25777/c5xs-1022
Karami A, Hassanzadeh J, and Pishgahifard Z (2016) The hydropolitic impact on relations between Iraq and Turkey, with emphasis on the Tigris and Euphrates. Political Studies of Islamic World 5(17):29-51 (In Persian)
Kelly C (1993) Group identification, intergroup perceptions and collective action. European Review of Social Psychology 4(1):59–83
Khoshkjan Z and Dabaghi H (2017) Meaning, language and identity in social constructivism as a methodology. Third International Conference on Psychology, Sociology, Educational Sciences and Social Studies (In Persian)
Kramer A (2004) Water and conflict (Policy briefing for USAID). Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars
Kreamer DK (2012) The past, present, and future of water conflict and international security. Journal of Contemporary Water Research & Education 149:88–96
Legro JW and Moravcsik A (1999) Is anybody still a realist? International Security 24(2):5–55
Liu J, Dietz T, Carpenter SR, Alberti M, Folke C, Moran E, Pell AN, Deadman P, Kratz T, Lubchenco J, … Taylor WW (2007) Complexity of coupled human and natural systems. Science 317(5844):1513–1516
Lossow T von, Miehe L, and Roll S (2020) Nile conflict: Compensation rather than mediation. German Institute for International and Security Affairs (11)
McCracken M and Wolf AT (2019) Updating the register of international river basins of the world. International Journal of Water Resources Development 35(5):732–782
Mianabadi H and Amini A (2019) Complexity of water, politics, and environment in the Euphrates and Tigris river basins. International Quarterly of Geopolitical 15(2):54-68 (In Persian)
Mianabadi H, Mostert E, Pande S, and van de Giesen N (2015) Weighted bankruptcy rules and transboundary water resources allocation. Water Resources Management 29(7):2303–2321
Mokhtari Hashi H and Ghaderi Hajat M (2008) Hydropoliticd in the middle east in 2025 case study: The basins of Tigris, Euphrates, Jordan & Nile Rivers. Geopolitics Quarterly 4(1 (11)):36-74 (In Persian)
Moradi Payam F, Hadizade N, and Younesi F (2015) Pathology of social distrust in society and presenting solutions to deal with it. The First National Scientific Research Congress on the Development and Promotion of Educational Sciences and Psychology (In Persian)
Oestigaard T (2009) Water, culture and identity: Comparing past and present traditions in the Nile bBasin region. BRIC Press, Bergen
Oxfam Novib (2012) Policy paper achieving conflict transformation. Available at: https://www. oxfamnovib.nl/Redactie/Downloads/English/network/2013/ntwrk2_2013_8-conflict-transformation_ ENG.pdf
Petersen-perlman JD, Veilleux JC, and Wolf AT (2017) International water conflict and cooperation: Challenges and opportunities. Water International 42(2). Available at: https://www.researchgate.net/ publication/312574274_International_water_conflict_and_cooperation_challenges_and_opportunities
Pierre-Louis N (2016) Theory of conflict resolution behavior: Dimensions of individualism and collectivism and perception of legitimacy of power and ideology; a hermeneutic comparative analysis. Nova Southeastern University
Pourahmadi H and Mosavinia M (2006) US foreign policy in the Middle East after sep.11 from point of View realism, liberalism and constructivism. Law & Politics Research Journal 8(20):23-52 (In Persian)
Rafie Jirdehi A and Habibzadeh Khotbehsara R (2012) A study on influental factors on collective identity of Guilaki citizens. Journal of Studies of Socio-Cultural Development 1(2):100-129 (In Persian)
Raufi M (2010) Components of religious identity. Journal of Communication and Religion 17(1–2):91-112 (In Persian)
Reed D (2017) Water, security and U.S. foreign policy. Routledge
Reimer L E, Schmitz C L, Janke E M, and et al. (2015) Transformative Change : An Introduction to Peace and Conflict Studies Transformative Change.  Lexington Books
Rothman J (2012) From identity- based conflict to identity- based Cooperation, the ARIA approach in theory and practice. Springer
Rothman J and Alberstein M (2013) Individuals, groups and intergroups: Theorizing about the role of identity in conflict and its creative engagement. Ohio State Journal on Dispute Resolution, Available at: https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2273330#
Salehi S and Emamgholi L (2016) A study of influencing individual and social norms on environmentally friendly behavior. Journal of Environmental Education & Sustainable Development 4(31):11-20 (In Persian)
Samuelson CD (2003) Identity and the natural environment, the psychological of nature. MIT Press
Shah E, Vos J, Veldwisch GJ, Boelens R, and Duarte-Abadía B (2019) Environmental justice movements in globalising networks: A critical discussion on social resistance against large dams. Journal of Peasant Studies DOI: 10.1080/03066150.2019 .1669566
Shayegan D and Valiani F (2007) New enchantment: Patchworked identity and mobile thinking. Forouzanfar (In Persian)
Shiani M and Ahmadpour K (2017) The relationship between social capital and spacial identity among citizens of Rasht. Social Welfare Quarterly 17(66):255-290 (In Persian)
Shroder H and Ahmadzai SJ (2016) Transboundary water resources in Afghanistan. Elsevier
Sohrabi M (2013) Principles of writing a review article. Pejouhandeh 18(2):52–56
Soleimanzadeh S, Omidi A, and Yazdani A (2018) Constructivism analysis of Iran-fear in american foreign policy after joint comprehensive plan of action. Quarterly Journal of Strategic Policy Research 6(24):95-126 (In Persian)
Solgi M, Saleh Sedghpour B, Heidari H, and Asgharpour A (2018) Analysis of elements and components of individual identity in Iran. Journal of Socio-Cultural Strategy 7(23):299-335 (In Persian)
Talebi A and Karimzadeh A (2018) Identity-questing and ethnic conflict (presenting an analytical framework). Afagh-e-Amniat 11(39):67-102 (In Persian)
The law Reform Commission (2008) Alternative dispute resolution. Available at: https://www.lawreform.ie/ 2008/consultation-paper-on-alternative-dispute-resolution.186.html
Thompson-Abell H (2017) Constructive conflict as a mean to promote individual growth and organizational learning. University of Kentucky, Available at: https://uknowledge.uky.edu/ edl_etds/21
Veisi K, Bijani M, and Abbasi E (2020) A human ecological analysis of water conflict in rural areas: Evidence from Iran. Global Ecology and Conservation 23: e01050
Votteler TH (2002) Raiders of the lost aquifer? Or the beginning of the end to fifty years of conflict over the Texas Edwards Aquifer. Tulane Environmental Law Journal 789(1997)
Wessels JI (2016) “Playing the game”, identity and perception-of-the-other in water cooperation in the Jordan river Basin. Hydrological Sciences Journal 61(7):1323–1337
Wolf A, Kramer A, Carius A, and Dabelko GD (2005) Managing water conflict and cooperation, in: state of the world redefining global security. The World Watch Institute
Yahyaei S and Kia SM (2009) Study of cultural identity and national identity of the nations of Iran and Afghanistan emphasizing the attitudes of Afghan immigrants towards Iranians. National Studies 10(1):135–156
Yoffe S and Wolf AT (2007) Conflict and cooperation: Geographical perspective. Cambridge Review of International Affairs 12(2):197–213
Yoffe S, Wolf AT, and Giordano M (2003) Conflict and cooperation over international freshwater resources: indicators of basins at risk. Journal of the American Water Resources Association 39(5):1109–1126
Zaki MA (2009) Social alienation of the youth (Case study: Male and female students of Isfahan university). Youth, Culture and Society Research 3:25-51 (In Persian)
Zeidan BA (2013) Water conflicts in the Nile river basin: Impacts on Egypt water resources management and road map. Available at: https://www.researchgate. net/publication/281320402_Water_Conflicts_in_the_Nile_River_Basin_Impacts_on_Egypt_Water_Resources_Management_and_Road_Map
Zeitoun M, Eid‐Sabbagh K, Dajani M, and Talhami M (2012) Hydro‐political baseline of the upper Jordan river. Association of the Friends of Ibrahim Abd et Al