تخصیص بار آلودگی در رودخانه‌ها: مرور پیشینه مطالعات و چشم‌انداز‌ مطالعات آتی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

استادیار /دانشکده مهندسی عمران، دانشگاه صنعتی خواجه نصیرالدین طوسی

چکیده

تخصیص بار آلودگی به منظور تعیین سطح بهینه تصفیه یا نحوه مدیریت هر یک از منابع آلودگی رودخانه، به عنوان یک روش رایج در مدیریت کیفیت آب رودخانه‌ها، همواره مورد توجه پژوهشگران و مدیران قرار داشته است. در مدل‌های پیشنهاد شده برای تخصیص بار آلودگی معمولاً اهداف و محدودیت‌های مختلفی مانند حداقل‌سازی هزینه‌های تصفیه، رعایت عدالت در توزیع هزینه‌ها، کاهش شدت تخطی‌ کیفیت آب از استانداردها و کاهش طول دوره‌های تخطی مورد توجه قرار می‌گیرند. بررسی پیشینه مطالعات نشان می‌دهد، علی‌رغم اهمیت و گستردگی مطالعات انجام شده، تاکنون یک مقاله مروری جامع در این زمینه منتشر نشده است. تنها مورد مرتبط، مقاله‌ای است که توسط de Melo and Câmara (1994)‌ در زمینه بهینه‌سازی منطقه‌ای سیستم‌های تصفیه‌ فاضلاب نوشته شده است و در آن اهداف و محدودیت‌های مدل‌های مدیریت کیفیت آب رودخانه بررسی شده‌اند. در سال‌های اخیر، لحاظ کردن عدم‌قطعیت‌های مهم و مدل‌سازی‌ مطلوبیت‌ها و روابط بین تخلیه‌کنندگان به طور ویژه مورد توجه قرار گرفته است. در این مقاله، بیش از 60 مقاله از مهم‌ترین مقالات چاپ شده در زمینه تخصیص بار آلودگی در رودخانه‌ها مورد بررسی قرار می‌گیرد و در مورد دلایل استفاده، مزایا و محدودیت‌های روش‌های گوناگون تخصیص بار آلودگی به کار رفته در این مقالات بحث می‌شود. با توجه به محدودیت حجم مقاله و ماهیت مروری آن، فرمولاسیون و روابط توسعه داده شده در زمینه تخصیص بار آلودگی بررسی نشده‌اند. همچنین، چشم‌اندازهای موجود برای بهبود رویکردهای فعلی در مطالعات آتی می‌شوند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Waste Load Allocation in Rivers: A State of the Art Review and Prospects for Future Studies

نویسنده [English]

  • N. Mahjouri
Assistant Professor, Faculty of Civil Engineering, K. N. Toosi University of Technology, Iran
چکیده [English]

Waste load allocation (WLA), which refers to determination of the optimum treatment level of waste load discharged into a river by every pollution source, has attracted the researchers and policy makers during the last decades. In most proposed WLA models, objectives and constraints such as minimizing the treatment costs, equity considerations in distributing costs, minimizing the amount of river water quality violations, and minimizing the duration of violation intervals are taken into account. In spite of the importance of the researches on WLA in rivers, there is only one paper by de Melo and Câmara (1994) in the literature which present an integrated review on the main objectives and constraints in river water quality management models. Recently, modeling important uncertainties and dischargers’ utilities have become the major focus of many WLA researches. In this paper, more than 60 major papers in the field of WLA in rivers are reviewed and their main aspects, virtues, and limitations are discussed. Also, some prospects and ideas for improving the current models in future are presented.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Waste Load Allocation؛ River
  • Water Quality
  • optimization
  • Simulation
  • Uncertainties

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