ارزیابی وضعیت حکمرانی ریسک سیل در ایران بر اساس رویکرد تدابیر سیاستی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش‌آموخته کارشناسی ارشد مدیریت و برنامه‌ریزی منابع آب، گروه مهندسی و مدیریت آب، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران

2 دانشیار گروه مهندسی و مدیریت آب، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، پژوهشکده مهندسی و مدیریت آب دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، گروه میان رشته‌ای فناوری آب، دانشکده علوم و فناوری‌های میان رشته‌ای، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران

3 دانشیار گروه آبخیزداری، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان

چکیده

در چند دهه اخیر، به دلیل افزایش تلفات جانی و مالی در دنیا نگرانی‌های زیادی در مورد عملکرد برنامه‌های مواجهه با سیل به وجود آمده است. لذا هدف این مقاله توجه به مسأله سیل از نگاه حکمرانی و بررسی و تحلیل چالش‌های سیستم حکمرانی سیل کشور و ارائه راهبردها و راهکارهای اجرایی برای تقویت حکمرانی ریسک سیل در ایران است. کاهش خسارات ناشی از سیل لزوماً فقط در گرو اقدامات سازه‌ای نیست. مقاله حاضر درصدد پاسخگویی به این سؤال است که با انجام چه اقدامات و برنامه‌هایی می‌توان تلفات جانی و خسارات مالی ناشی از سیل را در ایران کاهش داد. ازاین‌رو، در پژوهش حاضر با رویکرد تحلیل کیفی قواعد و گزارش‌ها و اطلاعات دریافتی بر مبنای گزارش‌های هیأت ویژه سیلاب ریاست جمهوری برای سیل‌های 1397 و 1398، ابعاد قواعد، کنشگران و منابع آن‌ها، و گفتمان متناظر با رویکرد تدابیر سیاستی در پنج راهبرد پیشگیری، دفاعی، کاهشی، آمادگی و بازیابی، مدیریت ریسک سیل برای تحلیل سیستم حکمرانی ریسک سیل در ایران به کار گرفته شد و در آخر راهکارهای اولویت‌دار برای اصلاح آن ارائه گردید. نتایج حاصل نشان‌دهنده این است که حکمرانی ریسک سیل ایران دارای چالش‌های فراوانی از جمله عدم توجه و اهمیت به رودخانه در شهرسازی و طراحی زیرساخت‌ها، عدم انجام صحیح و به‌موقع مسئولیت‌های نهادی، تداخل ساختارهای مدیریتی در شرایط بحران، عدم استفاده کارآمد از منابع موجود و تأکید بر مدیریت دولت‌محور سیل می‌باشد. به علاوه، در برنامه‌ها و اقدامات راهبردهای مدیریت سیل تنوع، همبستگی و همسویی کمرنگ است. همچنین، دو راهبرد دفاعی و آمادگی نسبت به دیگر راهبردهای پنج‎گانه طرح‌های مدیریت سیل نهادینه‌تر هستند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Assessment of the Flood Risk Governance in Iran According to the Approach of Policy Arrangements

نویسندگان [English]

  • Hossein Shakeri Rostami 1
  • Ali Bagheri 2
  • Amir Saadodin 3
1 Master Graduate of Water Resources Management and Planning, Department of Water Engineering and Management, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.
2 Tarbiat Modares University, Department of Water Resources Engineering
3 Associate Proffesor, Department of Watershed Management, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Gorgan
چکیده [English]

In recent decades, a growing concern has emerged about the effectiveness of flood control programs due to accelerated rate of damages and casualties worldwide. The present paper aimed to investigate the issue of floods from the perspective of governance and its associated challenges and to come up with insights to enhance the flood risk governance in Iran. It is evident that the flood damages will not be reduced merely by structural practices. Thus, the paper seeked to answer the question that how the flood damages and casualties can be reduced in the country. Adopting a qualitative content analysis of the institutional documents and the reports and information associated to the national inquiry committee of 2019 Floods in Iran, this paper assessed the flood risk governance in Iran by analyzing the three dimensions of policy arrangement, including rules, actors and their associated resources, and discourses through five flood risk strategies including prevention, defense, mitigation, preparation, and recovery. The results showed that the flood risk governance in Iran suffers from critical challenges such as ignoring the river bodies in urban planning and designing infrastructures, lack of appropriate institutional responses, interference of different management approaches during the crisis situation, low efficiency in utilizing the available resources, and insisting in managing governmentally to control the flood, It was shown that diversity, unity and integrity are limited in the programs and actions associated with the flood risk management strategies. Furthermore, it was observed that among the five strategies of flood risk management, the defense and preparation strategies are more embodied in the national flood management plans.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Flood Risk Management
  • Strategies
  • Discourse
  • Actors
  • rules
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