بررسی قابلیت گیاهان بومی در گیاه پالایی فلزات سنگین و مواد مغذی در مخازن سدهای لتیان و لار

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری تخصصی محیط زیست، گروه محیط‌زیست، دانشکده علوم پایه، واحد همدان، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، همدان، ایران.

2 دانشیار گروه محیط زیست، دانشکده علوم پایه، واحد همدان، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، همدان، ایران.

3 استاد گروه محیط زیست، دانشکده علوم پایه، واحد همدان، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، همدان، ایران.

4 استادیار گروه محیط زیست، دانشکده کشاورزی، واحد اصفهان (خوراسگان)، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، اصفهان، ایران.

چکیده

بررسی و کنترل تجمع زیستی فلزات سنگین به دلیل بار آلودگی، خطر اکولوژیکی و عوارض بسیار بالایی که برای سلامت انسان‌ها و همچنین نامشخص بودن نوع، مقدار و چگونگی ورود آلاینده‌ها به منابع آبی دارد از اهمیت بسیاری برخوردار می‌باشد، در این راستا تعیین میزان آلودگی فلزات سنگین و نیترات و فسفات در مخازن سدهای لتیان و لار و همچنین پتانسیل گیاهان لمنا، لویی و آب­تره در گیاه‌پالایی فلزات سنگین و مواد مغذی این منابع مدنظر این بررسی قرار گرفت. به این منظور 40 نمونه آب از اعماق مختلف دریاچة سدهای لتیان و لار و 3 نمونه از قسمت برگ گونه‌های گیاهی در فواصل تصادفی در فصول تابستان و پاییز جمع­آوری و پس از آماده­سازی و فرآوری نمونه­ها در آزمایشگاه، میانگین غلظت باقیمانده عناصر توسط دستگاه­های ICP و اسپکتروفتومتر قرائت شد. نتایج به‌دست‌آمده میانگین غلظت عناصر مس، سرب، آهن و نیترات در دریاچة سد لتیان به ترتیب 0/009، 0/27 ،0/10 و 0/07 میلی‌گرم در لیتر و در دریاچة سد لار به ترتیب 0/004، 0/26، 0/06 و 1/27 میلی‌گرم در لیتر را نشان داد که در تمامی موارد به­جز عنصر سرب کمتر از حد مجاز استانداردهای مربوطه بود. همچنین میانگین غلظت فسفات در دریاچة سد لتیان و لار به ترتیب 0/07 و 1/27 میلی­گرم در لیتر بوده که در سد لتیان کمتر و در سد لار بیشتر از حد استاندارد می­باشد. همچنین، در سد لتیان گیاه لمنا در حذف عناصر سرب و فسفات، گیاه لویی در حذف آهن و آب­تره در حذف مس و نیترات کارایی بالایی داشته اما در سد لار گیاه لویی در حذف عنصر آهن، مس، سرب و نیترات، آب­تره در حذف فسفات کارایی بالاتری داشته است. کم بودن میانگین غلظت عناصر سنگین در مخزن سد لار نسبت به سد لتیان با مساحت قابل‌توجه مراتع خوب و بارش فراوان در حوضه آبریز لار مرتبط است؛ بنابراین نوع کاربری اراضی، الگوی پوشش گیاهی و رطوبت هوا در حوضه‌های آبریز جاجرود و لار بر این مسأله تأثیرگذار می­باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigating the Potential of Native Plants in Phytoremediation of Heavy Metals and Nutrients in the Latian and Lar Dam Reservoirs

نویسندگان [English]

  • Fatemeh Kakoei Dinaki 1
  • Mehrdad Cheraghi 2
  • Bahareh Lorestani 2
  • Soheil SobhanArdakani 3
  • Atefeh Chamani 4
1 Ph.D. Student in Environmental Science, Department of Environment, College of Basic Sciences, Hamedan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Hamedan, Iran.
2 Associate Professor in Environmental Sciences, Department of Environment, College of Basic Sciences, Hamedan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Hamedan, Iran.
3 Professor in Environmental Science, Department of Environment, College of Basic Sciences, Hamedan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Hamedan, Iran.
4 Assistant Professor, Department of Environment, Faculty of Agriculture, Isfahan (Khorasgan) Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Investigation and control of bioaccumulation of heavy metals is very important due to pollution load, ecological risk and very high consequences to human health as well as the uncertainty of the type, amount and manner of pollutants entering water sources. In this regard, determining the level of pollution of heavy metals, nitrate and phosphate in the Latian and Lar dam reservoirs, as well as the potential of Lemna minor, Typha Latifolica and Nasturtium microphyll in phytoremediation of heavy metals and nutrients of these sources were considered in this study. For this purpose, 40 water samples were collected from different depths of Latian and Lar dam lakes as well as 3 samples from the leaves of plant species at random intervals in summer and autumn. After preparing and processing the samples in the laboratory, the average residual concentration of elements was read by ICP. Results showed the mean concentrations of copper, lead, iron and nitrate in Latian dam lake as 0.009, 0.27, 0.10 and 0.07 mg/l, respectively. In Lar dam lake the concentrations were respectively 0.004, 0.26, 0.06 and 1.27 mg/l. In all cases except lead, the values were less than the standard allowable limits. Also, the average phosphate concentrations in Latian and Lar dam reservoirs were 0.07 and 1.27 mg/l, respectively, which was over the standard allowable limit in Lar dam reservoir. Also, in Latian dam, Lemna minor plant has high efficiency in removing lead and phosphate elements, Typha Latifolica has high efficiency in removing iron, and leek juice has high efficiency in removing copper and nitrate. In Lar dam, Typha Latifolica was more efficient in removing iron, copper, lead and nitrate, and leek juice in removing Phosphate. The low average concentration of heavy elements in the reservoir of Lar Dam compared to Latian Dam is related to the considerable area of ​​good pastures and heavy rainfall in the Lar catchment; i.e. the type of land use, vegetation pattern and air humidity in Jajroud and Lar Dam catchments affect this issue.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Water resources
  • heavy metal pollution
  • Phytoremediation
  • Latian Dam
  • Lar Dam
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