کاربست رویکرد شاخص‌محور در ارزیابی امنیت آبی حوضه دریاچه ارومیه

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری مهندسی منابع آب، دانشگاه ارومیه.

2 استاد گروه مهندسی آب دانشگاه ارومیه.

3 دانشیار گروه مهندسی و مدیریت آب دانشگاه تربیت مدرس.

چکیده

با رشد تقاضا برای غذا و انرژی، افزایش استانداردهای زندگی و پیچیدگی‌های حکمرانی آب، فشار بر منابع آب در حال افزایش است. عوامل متعددی در ایجاد امنیت آبی دخیل هستند. در این پژوهش، ابتدا امنیت آبی حوضه‌ دریاچه ارومیه با استفاده از طبقه‌بندی آبی- اقتصادی حوضه برای 1) دوره‌های پنج ساله از سال 1370 تا 1395 و 2) استان‌های واقع در حوضه‌ برای سال پایه 1395 مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. نتایج بدست آمده، وجود چالش‌های هیدرولوژیکی زیاد و ظرفیت اقتصادی کم برای دستیابی به امنیت آبی را نشان داد. روش‌های عمومی نظیر طبقه‌بندی آبی- اقتصادی، اطلاعات دقیقی از وضعیت سیستم منابع آب در مقیاس‌های محلی ارائه نمی‌کنند. لذا در بخش دوم، باتوجه به ویژگی‌های حوضه، تعریف مشخصی از امنیت آبی ارائه شد. باتوجه به این تعریف، یک چارچوب شاخص‌محور در سه بعد دسترسی به آب، درآمد ساکنین و اشتغال ساکنین برای ارزیابی امنیت آبی حوضه طراحی شد و بررسی‌ها برای دوره تاریخی انجام گرفت. باتوجه به معیارهای درنظر گرفته شده، به طور کلی امنیت آبی حوضه در سال‌های 1375 و 1395 « کم» و در سال‌های 1380، 1385، 1390 «متوسط» ارزیابی شد. بررسی امنیت آبی حوضه با شاخص‌های بهره‌وری فعالیت‌های اقتصادی نشان داد که به منظور دستیابی به امنیت آبی در آینده، بخش کشاورزی از پتانسیل لازم برای توسعه اجتماعی- اقتصادی برخوردار نبوده، سیاست‌ها باید در راستای کاهش مصرف آب و اشتغال کشاورزی ارائه شود. این امر بدون سرمایه‌گذاری و ایجاد ظرفیت اشتغال در بخش‌های دیگر که قابلیت بالایی برای افزایش درآمد سرانه حوضه را دارند، ممکن نیست.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Application of Indicator-Based Approach in Water Security Assessment of Lake Urmia Basin

نویسندگان [English]

  • Samin Jabbari Gharabagh 1
  • Hossein Rezaie 2
  • Ali Bagheri 3
1 Ph.D. Candidate of Water Resources Engineering, Urmia University.
2 Professor, Department of Water Engineering, Urmia University.
3 Associate Professor, Department of Water Engineering and Management, Tarbiat Modarres University.
چکیده [English]

By growing food and energy demands and rising living standards and according to the complexity of regional water governance, the pressure on water resources is increasing. Many factors are involved in water security. In this research, firstly, the water security of Lake Urmia Basin was investigated using hydro-economic classification for 1) five-year periods from 1991 to 2016, and 2) the provinces located in the basin for 2016. The results showed the existence of high hydrological challenges and low economic capacity to achieve water security. Since general methods such as hydro-economic classification do not provide accurate information at local scales, in the second part, a clear definition of water security was presented according to the characteristics of Lake Urmia Basin. Considering this definition, we designed an indicator-based framework in three dimensions of access to water, income, and employment to assess the water security of the basin. The study was conducted for the historical period. By the considered criteria, the water security of the basin was assessed as "low" in 1996 and 2016 and "moderate" in 2001, 2006 and 2011. The study of the basin water security with productivity indicators of economic activities showed that in order to achieve water security in the future, the agricultural sector does not possess the necessary potential for socio-economic development and policies in this sector should be oriented towards reduction of water consumption and employment. This is not possible without investing and creating employment capacity in other sectors, which have high potential for increasing employment opportunities and per capita income.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Hydro-economic Classification
  • Hydrological Challenges
  • Economic Capacity
  • Productivity
  • employment
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