ارزیابی تأثیرات اقدامات آبخیزداری برمولفه های بیلان آبی و رسوب مطالعه موردی: حوضه آبریز وردیج – واریش

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دانشگاه تربیت مدرس

2 گروه پژوهشی مهندسی رودخانه و سواحل - پژوهشکده حفاظت خاک و آبخیزداری - سازمان تحقیقات آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی

3 دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، گروه مهندسی منابع آب

چکیده

اقدامات آبخیزداری و سیاست‌های توسعه‌ای آن از جمله موارد مهم در اسناد بالادستی بخش آب و محیط‌زیست محسوب می‌گردد. در توسعه چنین اقداماتی توجه به اصل مدیریت یکپارچه منابع آب ضروری است. ارزیابی اثربخشی این اقدامات بر بیلان آبی حوضه‌ آبریز موضوع این مطالعه است. مطالعه حاضر تلاش دارد تا با استفاده از رویکرد شبیه‌سازی جامع این اقدامات، ضمن ارزیابی آنها، به بررسی کارایی و اثرات جانبی آن‌ها بپردازد. بدین منظور حوضه آبریز وردیج-واریش و اقدامات آبخیزداری انجام شده توسط پژوهشکده حفاظت خاک و آبخیزداری در منطقه ورکباد این حوضه با استفاده از مدل SWAT شبیه‌سازی شد . مدل برای دوره 2017 تا 2018 مورد واسنجی و اعتبارسنجی قرار گرفت. که برای دوره واسنجی مقادیر R2 و ضریب NS برابر با 0/85 و 0/7 و برای دوره اعتبارسنجی برابر با 0/89 و 0/63 می‌باشد. نتایج نشان داد که همه‌ی اقدامات تأثیر مناسبی در راستای حفظ منابع آبی و خاکی دارند و متناسب با اهداف مربوطه می‌توان از آن‌ها استفاده کرد. اقدام بیولوژیک بذرکاری در افزایش رطوبت خاک در منطقه غیر اشباع (60 درصد) و نهال‌کاری در کاهش رواناب حوضه (36 درصد) مؤثر بود. این دو اقدام همراه با عملیات بیومکانیکی در افزایش و یا کاهش مؤلفه‌های بیلان آبی تاثیرگذارتر خواهد بود. به گونه‌ای که افزایش تبخیر و تعرق به میزان 11/5 درصد در بذرکاری با تلفیق با کنتور فارو به 1/5 درصد تلقیق می باید. همچنین با استفاده از روش تصمیم‌گیری چند معیاره اقدام بذرکاری به عنوان بهترین شیوه‌ی مدیریتی درحوضه آبریز وردیج - واریش انتخاب شد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluating the Impact of Watershed Management Practices on Water Balance Components and Sediment in Verdij–Varish Catchment

نویسندگان [English]

  • Amirhosein Nourafkan 1
  • Rouhangiz Akhtari 2
  • Majid Delavar 3
1 Master student of Tarbiat Modares University
2 River and Coastal Engineering Research Group, Soil Conservation and Watershed Management Research Institute (SCWMRI) of the Agricultural Research and Education Organization (AREO)
3 Tarbiat Modares University
چکیده [English]

Watershed management practices and the strategies towards its development are among the important articles in water and environment sections in governmental higher documents. One of the important aspects of watershed’s development is the Integrated Water Rsources Management. The focus of this research is on comprehensive assessment of the effects of these practices on a catchment's water balance. To this end, the SWAT model was used as a comprehensive simulation tool. Verdij - Varish Basin was selected as a case study since it has served as a pilot area for the implementation of various watershed management practices (biological, biomechanical and mechanical) in recent years The SWAT model has been calibrated and validated for the period of 2017 to 2018. The values of R2 and Nash Sutcliffe (NS) coefficient were respectively equal to 0.85 and 0.7 for the calibration period and 0.89 and 0.63 for the calibration period. The watershed management practices were simulated by the SWAT model and their effects on water balance components and sediment were evaluated. As compared to the original state, seeding has increased soil moisture in the unsaturated area by about 60% and transplant has reduced runoff by 36%. Using multi-criteria decision making method, a type of biological practice (seeding) was determined to be the best management practice for increasing soil moisture and reducing outflow in Vardij Varish catchment.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Water balance components
  • Watershed Management
  • SWAT model
  • Vardig Basin
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