بررسی امکان استفاده از رواناب های سطحی در شهر مشهد

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

شرکت مهندسین مشاور جوی آب، مشهد، ایران

چکیده

یکی از مهمترین اثرات تغییر کاربری اراضی و تبدیل حوضه‌های طبیعی به شهری، کاهش سطوح نفوذپذیر و در نتیجه افزایش احتمال وقوع سیلاب‌های شهری و آبگرفتگی معابر در هنگام بارندگی می‌باشد. با توجه به افزایش بی‌سابقه وسعت شهر مشهد در سال‌های اخیر و به دنبال آن افزایش پتانسیل رواناب ناشی از بارندگی‌ها از یک طرف و کمبود جدی منابع آب از طرف دیگر، انجام یک مطالعه جامع در ارتباط با رواناب‌های سطحی در شهر مشهد و چگونگی مدیریت آنها ضرورت جدی پیدا کرده‌است. در این تحقیق، پس از انجام حوضه‌بندی با توجه به اطلاعات موجود ابتدا فرآیند بارش-رواناب با استفاده از مدل HEC-HMS برای بخشی از زیرحوضه‌های شهری و طبیعی مشهد واسنجی و سپس حجم رواناب برای کل شهر محاسبه گردیده و در نهایت چگونگی مدیریت و امکان فنی و اقتصادی بویژه ذخیره رواناب تولید شده جهت استفاده در فضای سبز بررسی شده‌است. نتایج بدست آمده از تحقیق حاضر نشان می‌دهد که علی رغم حجم بالای رواناب تولید شده، انتظار حل مشکل صرفاً با احداث مخزن ذخیره به دلیل محدودیت‌های مکانی به جز در چند نقطه محدود چندان قابل توجیه نیست. به عبارت دیگر نسبت هزینه لازم برای ذخیره و استفاده هر متر مکعب رواناب بسیار بالا و غیر اقتصادی است. لذا رویکرد اصلی استفاده از پتانسیل دریاچه ها و مخازن موجود و استفاده از ذخیره‌ی رواناب حوضه بند گلستان در 5 کیلومتری جنوب غرب مشهد می‌باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigating the Possibility of Using Surface Runoff in Mashhad

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mahdi Najafi
  • Bahareh Eskandari Torbaghan
Jouyab Consulting Eng. Mashhad, Iran
چکیده [English]

Declining pervious areas is one of the most important effects of land use changes and replacing natural watersheds with urban zones. This phenomenon increases the surface runoff and the possibility of urban floods. In recent years, the unprecedented expansion of urbanized areas of Mashhad City has caused an increase in runoff potential. Since, on the other hand, there is a serious lack of water resources for the city, a comprehensive study on urban surface runoff and methods of managing the runoff has become a serious necessity in Mashhad. In this study, after sub-basin delineation, based on the available data, first the rainfall-runoff process for a number of urban and natural sun-basins was calibrated using HEC-HMS rainfall-runoff model. Then, the volume of surface runoff was computed for the whole city of Mashhad. Finally, management methods of surface runoff especially in terms of runoff storage were considered both technically and economically. The results showed that despite the high volume of produced runoff, runoff management merely based on storage is not reasonable due to spatial restrictions. In other words, the cost ratio for storing and using each cubic meter of runoff is very high and economically not feasible. Consequently, the main approach in runoff storage in Mashhad needs to focus on utilizing the potential of existing lakes and reservoirs. In addition, the other important approach should be based on storing the water released from Golestan Dam located 5 km of the southwest of Mashhad.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Rainfall-runoff modeling
  • Urban runoff management
  • Runoff Storage
Abdolghafoorian A, Tajrishy M, and Abrishamchi A (2012) Urban water management considering reclaimed wastewater and runoff as a new water resource for city of Tehran, Iran. Journal of Water and Wastewater; Ab va Fazilab 23(4):29–42 (In Persian)
Ahiablame LM, Engel BA, and Chaubey I (2012) Effectiveness of low impact development practices: Literature review and suggestions for future research. Water, Air, & Soil Pollution 223(7):4253–4273
Akan AO and Houghtalen RJ (2003) Urban hydrology, hydraulics, and stormwater quality. Engineering Applications and Computer Modeling, Wiley
American Society of Civil Engineers and the United States Army Corps of Engineers (1996) River hydraulics: Technical engineering & design guides as adapted from U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, NO. 18. New York, NY: ASCE Press
ASCE (1996) Hydrology handbook. New York: American Society of Civil Engineers, ASCE Press
Azizi J and Khodashenas SR (2019) The effect of Mashhad city development on its flooding during 1941- 2016. Iran-Watershed Management Science & Engineering 13(45):118–128 (In Persian)
Binesh N, Nazariha M, Niksokhan MH, and Sarang A (2015) Investigating the effect of applying BMPs on quantity and quality of urban floods. The Third National Conference on Flood Management and Engineering with Urban Flood Approach, Tehran (In Persian)
Dolati J, Lashkaripour GR, and Hafezi Moghaddas N (2016) Investigation of environmental impacts of city development on aquifer and water resources case study of Mashhad. 6 th National Conference on Water Resources Management, Kordestan (In Persian)
Farzin S, Noori H, and Karami H (2018) Performance development of modern methods using multi-objective optimization in urban runoff control. Iran-Water Resources Research 14(3):45–58 (In Persian)
Ghahraman B and Abkhezr H (2004) Improvement in intensity-duration-frequency relationships of rainfall in Iran. Journal of Sciences and Technology of Agriculture and Natural Resources 8(2):1–14 (In Persian)
Ghasemi S and Faghfour Maghrebi M (2015) Investigation of the best method for collecting surface runoff in Mashhad (Case Study: Mashhad Ab-o Bargh District). 14th Iranian Hydraulics Conference, Zahedan, 1–8 (In Persian)
Hatami-Yazd A, Taghvaee-Abrishami AA, and Ghahraman B (2005) Rainfall temporal pattern for Khorasan Province. Iran-Water Resources Research 1(3):40–50 (In Persian)
HEC (2000) Hydrologic modeling system HEC-HMS. Technical Reference Manual, Davis, C A: US Army Corps of Engineers Hydrologic Engineering Center
Jha AK, Bloch R, and Lamond J (2012) Cities and Flooding. The World Bank, Available at: https://doi.org/10.1596/978-0-8213-8866-2
Karami M, Ardeshir A, and Behzadian Kourosh (2016) Hazard management of inundation and pollutants in urban floods using optimal conventional and novel strategies. Iran-Water Resources Research 11(3):100–112 (In Persian)
Karamouz M (2012) Preface: Water security in urban areas. Iran-Water Resources Research 7(4):0–1 (In Persian)
Khani S and Faghfour Maghrebi M (2017) Comparison of estimates of runoff peak discharge based on SWMM and HEC-HMS models using ASSA software. 16th Iranian Hydraulics Conference, Ardabil (In Persian)
Kouhi M, Babaeian I, Mousavi–Baygi M, Farid Hosseini A, and Khazanedari L (2013) Projected changes in precipitation extremes of Mashhad during the twenty first century. Iran-Water Resources Research 9(1):61–74 (In Persian)
Maidment DR (1993) Handbook of hydrology. McGraw-Hill
Mays LW (1996) Water resources handbook. McGraw-Hill
Mitchell VG, Mein RG, and McMahon TA (2001) Modelling the urban water cycle. Environmental Modelling & Software 16(7):615–629
Panahi G and Esmaili K (2018) Recommendation of new approaches for urban flood management. Journal of Water and Sustainable Development 5(1):93–100 (In Persian)
Peng Z, Jinyan K, Wenbin P, Xin Z, and Yuanbin C (2019) Effects of low-impact development on urban rainfall runoff under different rainfall characteristics. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies 28(2):771–783
Ponce VM (1991) The kinematic wave controversy. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering 117(4):511–525
Radmehr A and Araghinejad S (2016) Optimal urban flood management using spatial multi criteria decision making approach. Amirkabir Journal of Civil and Environmental Engineering 48(3):227–240 (In Persian)
Tajbakhsh M and Khodashenas SR (2008) Using new methods of urban flood control for optimal use of water resources. National Conference on Water Resources Development, Zahedan (In Persian)
USACE (1994) Flood-runoff analysis, EM 1110-2-1417. Washington, DC: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers
WIUT (2017) Urban flood management training course-SWMM. Tehran: Water Institute-University of Tehran (In Persian)