مروری بر روش‌های تحلیل اقتصادی نشت در شبکه‌های توزیع آب

نوع مقاله : مقاله مروری

نویسندگان

1 دانشکده مهندسی عمران، آب و محیط زیست، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی، تهران، ایران

2 دانشیار دانشکده عمران، آب و محیط زیست، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی تهران

3 دانشکده مهندسی عمران، دانشگاه خوارزمی

چکیده

نشت به عنوان یکی از ارکان اصلی هدررفتِ واقعی آب، جزو لاینفک شبکه‌های توزیع آب شهری محسوب می‌شود؛ به طوری که حتی بهترین شبکه‌های توزیع آب نیز از مقداری نشت در زیرساخت خود برخوردار هستند. جهت کاهش نشت و بهبود عملکرد شبکه‌های توزیع آب، روش‌ها و رویکردهای متعددی ارائه شده است. اقدامات و استراتژی‌های اصلی جهت کنترل و مدیریت نشت توسط شرکت‌های آب و فاضلاب، شامل چهار استراتژی اصلی عملیات کنترل فعال نشت (نشت‌یابی فعال)، مدیریت حوادث و شکستگی‌ها (کنترل منفعل نشت)، مدیریت فشار و مدیریت دارائی (بازسازی و نوسازی زیرساخت شبکه) می‌باشد. سوال حائز اهمیت این است که، کدام یک از این رویکردها برای یک شبکه‌ی توزیع آب مناسب‌تر است؟ پاسخ این سوال با انجام تحلیل سطح اقتصادی نشت به دست می‌آید. لذا مهمترین جزءِ یک استراتژی کنترل و مدیریت نشت، هدف‌گذاری آن بر اساس سطح اقتصادی نشت است. این مقاله، مروری جامع بر روش‌های برآورد سطح اقتصادی نشت در شبکه‌های توزیع آب، در قالب دوره‌‌های زمانی مختلف از جمله کوتاه‌مدت، بلندمدت و پایدار دارد. علاوه بر این رویکردی جهت تخمین سطح اقتصادی نشت با توجه به شرایط حاکم در هر شبکه و یا شرکت‌ آب و فاضلاب مربوطه پیشنهاد می‌شود. نتایج این مقاله‌ برای متخصصان و محققانِ حوزه‌ی آب بدون درآمد که در شبکه‌های توزیع آب فعالیت دارند مرجعی مفید و کاربردی محسوب می‌شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

A Review on Methods for Economic Analysis of Leakage in Water Distribution Networks

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ehsan Yousefi Khoshqalb 1
  • Iman Moslehi 1
  • Mohammadreza Jalili Ghazizadeh 2
  • Hani Ghamkhar 3
1 Civil, Water and Environmental Engineering Department, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran
2 Assistant Professor, Faculty of Civil, Water, and Environmental Engineering, Shahid Beheshti University
3 Civil Engineering Department,, Kharazmi University
چکیده [English]

As the main component of real water losses, leakage afflicts most water networks worldwide; even the best Water Distribution Networks (WDNs) have leakage in their network infrastructure. Several methods and strategies have been developed for leakage reduction and performance improvement in WDNs. In practice, leakage control strategies, including active leakage control, passive leakage control, pressure management, and infrastructure asset management, are performed by water utilities to reduce leakage. The main question is, which of these leakage management strategies are the most appropriate for a specific WDN? The answer to this question is obtained by analyzing the economic level of leakage (ELL). In fact, the essential component of a leakage control strategy is that its target is set in terms of the economic level of leakage (ELL). This paper provides a comprehensive review of the estimation of the ELL at different time frames, including short-run, long-run, and sustainable in WDNs. In addition, a procedure to estimate the ELL is proposed according to the conditions in each network or the relevant water utilities. Results of this review could be a valuable reference resource for practitioners and researchers dealing with non-revenue water in WDNs.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Economic Level of Leakage
  • Leakage Management
  • Active Leakage Control
  • Economic Analysis
  • water distribution networks
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