طراحی بهینه شبکه پایش کیفی آب زیرزمینی با استفاده از نقشه آسیب‌پذیری آبخوان

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه مهندسی آب، دانشکده علوم کشاورزی، دانشگاه گیلان، رشت، ایران

2 استادیار گروه مهندسی آب دانشگاه گیلان

3 دانشیار گروه مهندسی آب، دانشکده علوم کشاورزی، دانشگاه گیلان، رشت، ایران

چکیده

بهره‌برداری بدون برنامه‌ریزی و بیش از حد مجاز آب زیرزمینی در نواحی ساحلی خطر پیشروی آب شور را افزایش می‌دهد، بنابراین مدیریت و پایش کیفیت آب در این نواحی از اهمیت بالایی برخوردار است. در این مطالعه، شبکه پایش بهینه با حداقل تعداد چاه‌ها در آبخوان ساحلی تالش با توجه به نقشه آسیب‌پذیری آبخوان و ارزیابی دقت شبکه پایش طراحی شد. در این راستا، نقشه آسیب‌پذیری آبخوان با استفاده از شاخص DRASTIC اصلاح شده تهیه شد و از الگوریتم ژنتیک برای جستجوی بهینه شبکه پایش استفاده شد. در مدل بهینه‌سازی هم‌زمان سه هدف حداکثر کردن همبستگی بین شاخص آسیب‌پذیری و مقدار EC، حداقل کردن تعداد چاه‌های پایش و حداکثر کردن ضریب نش-ساتکلیف که بیانگر برازش بین توزیع EC محاسبه شده در شبکه پایش موجود و شبکه جدید است، مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. با اعمال ضریب وزنی w برای هدف اقتصادی، سه هدف در یک تابع هدف تعریف شد و وزن‌های مختلف w ارزیابی شد. نتایج نشان داد که انتخاب جواب بهینه تا حد زیادی به تعیین ضریب وزنی w بستگی دارد و بهترین وزن با توجه به متعادل‌ترین جواب و با توجه به شاخص آسیب‌پذیری و دقت شبکه پایش انتخاب شد. نتایج اعتبارسنجی نشان داد که در هر دو دوره بهینه‌سازی و اعتبارسنجی تخمین‌های قابل قبولی حاصل شده است. همچنین با توجه به تغییرات کمی و کیفی آب زیرزمینی در درازمدت بهتر است به صورت دوره‌ای شبکه پایش کیفی آب زیرزمینی ارزیابی و دوباره طراحی شود تا در برنامه‌ریزی‌ها و اعمال روش‌هایی برای بهبود کیفیت آب زیرزمینی مؤثر باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Design of the Optimal Groundwater Quality Monitoring Network Using the Aquifer Vulnerability Map

نویسندگان [English]

  • Hedi Mahmoudpour 1
  • Somaye Janatrostami 2
  • Afshin Ashrafzadeh 3
1 Department of Water Engineering, College of Agricultural Sciences, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran
2 Assistant Professor of Water Engineering Department, University of Guilan
3 Associate Professor, Department of Water Engineering, College of Agricultural Sciences, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Unplanned operation and excessive extraction of groundwater in coastal areas increases the risk of seawater intrusion; so water quality monitoring and management in these areas are of great importance. In this study, an optimal monitoring network with minimum number of wells in Talesh coastal aquifer is designed according to the aquifer vulnerability map and evaluation of the accuracy of monitoring network. In this regard, the aquifer vulnerability map was prepared using the modified DRASTIC index; and genetic algorithm was used to optimize the monitoring network. Three objectives were used in the optimization model including (1) maximizing the correlation between vulnerability index and EC values, (2) minimizing the number of monitoring wells, and (3) maximizing the Nash-Sutcliffe (NS) efficiency. NS, represented the match between the calculated EC distribution obtained from existing monitoring wells and those wells from the newly generated network. Applying the weighting factor w for economic objective, the three above-mentioned objectives are integrated in a single objective function and different weights of w were evaluated. The results showed that the selection of an optimal solution greatly depends on the weighting coefficient w and the best weight was selected according to the vulnerability index and the accuracy of monitoring network. Due to long-term quantitative and qualitative changes in groundwater, it is better to periodically evaluate and redesign groundwater quality monitoring network so that the network could effectively use in planning and applying methods to improve groundwater quality.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Coastal Aquifer
  • Modified DRASTIC
  • optimization
  • Genetic Algorithm
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