مقایسه عوامل روانشناختی موثر بر رفتارهای صرفه‌جویی و رفتارهای افزایش بهره‌وری آب خانگی؛ مورد مطالعه شهر تهران

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکترا؛ دانشکده فنی- دانشکده عمران- دانشگاه تهران

2 استاد دانشکده مهندسی عمران، پردیس دانشکده‌های فنی، دانشگاه تهران

3 دانشیار گروه ترویج و آموزش کشاورزی، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی خوزستان، خوزستان، ایران

4 دانشجوی دکتری آموزش کشاورزی پایدار و محیط زیست، گروه ترویج، ارتباطات و توسعه روستایی، دانشگاه زنجان، زنجان، ایران

چکیده

تأمین امنیت آب در مواجهه با رشد جمعیت و کمبود منابع، سیاست‌گذاران را با چالش بزرگی در مناطق شهری مواجه کرده و آنها را به‌سمت رهیافت‌های مدیریت تقاضای آب سوق داده است. حفاظت از آب به‌عنوان عاملی اساسی در مدیریت تقاضا، راهکاری مؤثر در تأمین پایدار آب شهری است که دو دسته رفتارهای صرفه‌جویی و افزایش بهره‌وری را شامل می‌شود. با توجه به انجام داوطلبانه این رفتارها توسط افراد، درک فرآیندهای روانشناختی تبیین‌کننده این رفتارها جنبه مهمی در طراحی سیاست‌ها و مداخلات کارآمد در این حوزه است. لذا هدف این تحقیق، بررسی عوامل مؤثر بر تمایل و رفتارهای حفاظت از آب ساکنان شهر تهران به‌کمک تئوری رفتار برنامه‌ریزی‌شده بود. داده‌های تحقیق، به‌کمک پرسشنامه ساختاریافته‌ای که روایی آن به‌کمک نظر متخصصان و پایایی آن با ضریب آلفای کرونباخ مورد تأیید قرار گرفت، از شهروندان تهرانی به دو روش آنلاین و آفلاین (820=N) جمع‌آوری شد. همچنین برای تجزیه‌و‌تحلیل داده‌ها، از مدل‌سازی معادلات ساختاری استفاده شد. براساس نتایج، تئوری رفتار برنامه‌ریزی‌شده قادر است به‌ترتیب 83% و 40% از واریانس تمایلات و رفتارهای صرفه‌جویی و به‌ترتیب 57% و 37% از واریانس تمایلات و رفتارهای افزایش بهره‌وری را تبیین نماید. همچنین نتایج نشان داد، نگرش و کنترل رفتاری درک‌شده بر تمایل به انجام هر دو رفتار تأثیرگذار است؛ اما هنجار ذهنی، تأثیری بر تمایل به انجام این رفتارها ندارد. به‌علاوه، نتایج حاکی از تأثیرگذاری تمایل و کنترل رفتاری درک‌شده بر انجام هر دو رفتار است. درنهایت براساس نتایج، دلالت‌هایی برای ارتقای حفاظت از آب خانگی و پیشنهاداتی برای تحقیقات آینده، ارائه شده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Comparison of Psychological Factors Effects on Residential Water Curtailment Behaviors and Water-Efficiency Behaviors; Case Study of Tehran, Iran

نویسندگان [English]

  • Seyyed Ahmadreza Shahangian 1
  • Massoud Tabesh 2
  • Masoud Yazdanpanah 3
  • Tahere Zobeidi 4
1 Ph.D. Candidate, School of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran
2 Professor, School of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran
3 Associate Professor, Department of Agricultural Extension and Education, Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, University of Khuzestan, Khuzestan, Iran
4 Ph.D. Candidate, Sustainable Agriculture Education and Environment, Department of Agricultural Extension, Communication and Rural Development, University of Zanjan, Zanjan, Iran
چکیده [English]

Ensuring water security in the face of population growth and resource scarcity has posed a serious challenge for policymakers in urban areas and led them to water demand management (WDM) approaches. Water conservation as a key factor in WDM is an effective solution to the sustainable urban water supply that includes two categories: water curtailment behaviors and water-efficiency behaviors. Given that the voluntary acceptance of water conservation behaviors by individuals, understanding the psychological determinant processes of these behaviors is an important aspect in designing effective policies and interventions in this area. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate factors affecting water conservation intentions and behaviors among Tehran citizens using the theory of planned behavior (TPB). The data collected using both online and offline surveys (N=820) in Tehran by a structured questionnaire, which its validity was confirmed by experts, and its reliability was confirmed by Cronbach's alpha coefficient. Data analyze conducted through the structural equation modeling. Based on the results, the TPB can explain 83% and 40% of the variance in water curtailment intentions and behaviors, respectively, and 57% and 37% of the variance in water-efficiency intentions and behaviors, respectively. The results also suggested attitude and perceived behavioral control affect the intention regarding both behaviors, but subjective norm does not affect the intention for both behaviors. In addition, the results revealed that both behaviors influenced by intentions and perceived behavioral control. Finally, based on the results, implications for improving residential water conservation and suggestions for future research are provided.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Water conservation
  • Theory of planned behaviour
  • Water curtailment Behavior
  • Water-efficiency Behavior
  • Water Demand management
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