پیاده سازی سیستم حسابداری آب WA+ در سطح حوضه‌ آبریز و چالش‌های پیش روی آن ( درس آموخته ها از مطالعه موردی حوضه آبریز طشک - بختگان)

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار/ گروه مهندسی منابع آب، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران.

2 استاد/ گروه مهندسی منابع آب، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران.

3 دانش ‏آموخته کارشناسی ارشد/ گروه مهندسی منابع آب، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران.

چکیده

هدف این مقاله ارائه روش شناسی استقرار حسابداری آب حوضه آبریز کشور بر اساس نتایج مدل مفهومی ویژه سازی شده SWAT-FARS و چارچوب حسابداری آب WA+ می‌باشد. در این مطالعه حوضه آبریز طشک بختگان در استان فارس به عنوان منطقه پایلوت مطالعاتی در نظر گرفته شد و تحلیلی از شرایط حوضه آبریز در دو دوره زمانی بر مبنای نتایج حسابداری آب آن ارائه گردید. تحلیل نتایج حاکی از راندمان حوضه‌ای حدود 80 در صدی حوضه آبریز طشک بختگان و بسته بودن حوضه به واسطه مصرف قابل توجه آب قابل مدیریت حوضه می باشد. در این حوضه به واسطه تغییر شرایط اقلیمی، منابع آب قابل مدیریت حوضه کاهش یافته است و در این شرایط نه تنها مصارف مدیریت شده آب در حوضه (تبخیر-تعرق تکمیلی) کاهش نداشته، بلکه به میزان قابل توجهی (53 درصد) نیز بر آن افزوده شده است. این مسئله منجر به کاهش جریانات خروجی به عنوان تأمین کننده حقابه دریاچه شده است. علاوه بر این، نتایج نشان‌دهنده افزایش کسری مخزن آب زیرزمینی و وضعیت ناپایدار بهره‌برداری از آن‌ها است. افزایش تعرق گیاهان در سطح اراضی کشاورزی به واسطه گسترش سطح اراضی و افزایش گیاهان پرمصرف‌تر و سهم قابل توجه تبخیر از خاک از کل مصارف غیر سودمند حوضه از دیگر عوامل تأثیرگذار بر شرایط کنونی حوضه آبریز طشک بختگان است. از طرفی مقدار قابل توجهی از آب برداشتی برای کشاورزی مجدداً به چرخه منابع آب حوضه برمی‌گردد که بر لزوم برنامه‌ریزی براساس "مصرف" تا "برداشت" تأکید دارد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Implementation of the WA + water accounting system at the basin level and the challenges (Lessons Learned from the Case Study of Tashk - Bakhtegan Basin)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Majid Delavar 1
  • Saeed Morid 2
  • Leila Raeisi 3
1 Assisstant Professor, Water Resources Engineering Department, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.
2 Professor, Water Resources Engineering Department, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.
3 M.Sc. Graduated Student, Water Resources Engineering Department, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.
چکیده [English]

The aim of this paper is to provide an application of Water Accounting Plus (WA+) Framework in the Tashk-Bakhtegan basin based on modification of the Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model. In this study, it has been provided an analysis of basin conditions in three time periods based on Water Accounting Plus (WA+). The analysis of the results indicates that the Tashk-Bakhtegan basin is a closed basin. In this basin, due to climate change, the manageable water resources have been remarkably declined and unfortunately, not only water managed consumption in the basin (Supplementary Evapotranspiration) have not been reduced but also it has been considerably increased (53%). This has led to a decrease in outflows as the water right supplier of the lake. Moreover, the results indicate an increase in groundwater resources deficiencies and their unsustainable exploitation. Increasing transpiration of plants in agricultural land is another factor influencing the current situation of the Tashk-Bakhtegan basin, due to the expansion of the land area and the increase of high water consuming plants as well as significant contribution of the soil evaporation of the total nonbeneficial consumption of the basin. At the other hand, a significant amount of agriculture water withdrawal is returned to the water basin cycle which emphasizes on “depletion “to “withdrawal” planning.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Water accounting
  • SWAT model
  • Real water Consumption
  • Manageble Water
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