تحلیل ابعاد مأموریت هیدرولیکی در هیدروپلیتیک ترکیه

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد / مهندسی منابع آب، گروه مهندسی آبیاری و زهکشی, پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه تهران، کرج،

2 استادیار / گروه مهندسی منابع آب، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، وردآورد، دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه تربیت مدرس

3 دانشیار/ عضو هیأت علمی وزارت علوم، تحقیقات و فناوری، تهران، ایران

چکیده

چالش‌های نوین جهانی از جمله میل شدید به توسعه‌یافتگی و تغییر اقلیم سبب پررنگ شدن پیوند آب،سیاست و امنیت شده به گونه‌ای که منابع آبی به یک ابزار نرم برای پیشبرد اهداف و نفوذ سیاسی تبدیل شده است. ازاین‌رو،توجه به اندرکنش پویا و درهم‌تنیده آب و سیاست درکنار عواملی همچون تغییرات اقلیمی در نقاط مختلف دنیا،بویژه درمنطقه بشدت پرتنش غرب آسیا،ازاهمیت بسیار زیادی برخوردار شده است. درمیان کشورهای غرب آسیا،ترکیه از جمله کشورهایی است که در دهه‌های اخیر درصدد استفاده‌ بیش از پیش از منابع آبی خود در راستای ایجاد قدرت اقتصادی، پیشبرد راهبردهای سیاسی و دستیابی به هژمونی آبی بوده است. این مقاله باروش توصیفی و تحلیلی و با اتکاء به منابع کتابخانه ای به تشریح مأموریت هیدرولیکیِ ترکیه در قالب سه دسته از پروژه های آبی داخلی و ملی‌سازی آب‌های این کشور، طرح‌های انتقال آب از ترکیه به کشورهای مجاور و فرصت‌سازی از منابع آب و در نهایت،پروژه‌های آبی بین‌المللی و مشروعیت‌سازیِ اقدامات هیدروپلیتیکی این کشور میپردازد و ارتباط این طرحها با رویکرد هیدروپلیتیکی این کشور را مورد واکاوی قرار میدهد. علاوه بر این، نشان داده خواهد شد ترکیه چگونه در ظاهر و صرفاً در مقام اظهارنظر از دکترین حاکمیت مطلق سرزمینی تغییر رویکردداده است اما در عمل سعی دارد بنابر دکترین عمق استراتژیک و به واسطه‌ رویکرد مأموریت هیدرولیکی،کشورهای مجاور و برخی کشورهای غیر مجاور خود را وابسته به اقدامات هیدروپلیتیکی خود نماید. ایجاد وابستگی به ضروری‌ترین منبع برای حیات بشر، یکی از استراتژی‌ها و ابزارهای ترکیه برای کسب قدرت در منطقه بشدت بحرانی غرب آسیا است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Dimensions of Hydraulic Mission in Turkey's Hydropolitics

نویسندگان [English]

  • Seyedeh Zahra Ghoreishi 1
  • Hojjat Mianabadi 2
  • Ebrahim Hajiani 3
1 . M.Sc. Student, Department of Irrigation & Reclamation Engineering, Faculty of Agricultural Engineering & Technology, College of Agriculture & Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Alborz, Iran
2 Assisstant Professor, Department of Agriculture, Tarbiat Modares University, VardAvard, Tehran, Iran.
3 Associate Professor, Member of the Faculty of Science, Research and Technology, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

New global challenges such as strong willingness to development and climate change highlighted water, politics and security nexus so that water resources have become a soft tool for achieving political goals and influences. Therefore, it is important to pay attention to the dynamic and complex interactions between water and politics throughout the world, especially in Western Asia as a highly stressed region. Among the West Asian countries, Turkey is one of countries that has been using a considerable part of its water resources to build economic power, advance political strategies and achieve water hegemony in recent decades. This paper describes Turkey’s hydraulic mission in three categories: domestic hydraulic mission projects and nationalize its waters, water transfer projects from Turkey to its neighbors and gets the opportunities from its waters, last but not the least, transboundary water projects and legitimize its hydropolitical actions. In addition, it will be shown how Turkey's government follows up the absolute territorial integrity in their discourses, but in practice, they apply Strategic Depth Doctrine and adopted Hydraulic Mission. Therefore, Turkey tries to dominate its neighboring and some non-neighboring countries by Turkey’s water and its hydropolitics actions. Because the volume of water that will be transported can only compensate for a very small fraction of the water scarcity. While they can cause serious economic, security and environmental challenges. Water dependency as the most indispensable resource for human life will be one of Turkey's strategies and tools for gaining power in the highly critical Western Asian region.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • HydroPolitics
  • Opportunitisation
  • nationalism
  • Hydraulic Mission
  • Turkey
Akpınar A, Kömürcü Mİ, and Kankal M (2011) Development of hydropower energy in Turkey: The case of Çoruh river basin. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 15(2):1201–1209
Al-Ansari N (2016) Hydro-Politics of the tigris and euphrates basins. Engineering Scientific Research Publishing 8(3):140–172
Allan T (2002) The middle East water question: Hydropolitics and the global economy. London/New York: I.B. Tauris Publishers, 400p
Allan T (2006) Millennial water management paradigms: Making IWRM work. Arab Decision Makers Project 16p
Allouche J (2005) Water nationalism: An explanation of the past and present conflicts in central Asia, the middle East, and the Indian sub-continent. Ph.D. Thesis., University of Geneva, 404p
Allouche J (2010) The multi-level governance of water and state-building processes: A longue duree perspective. Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group, 392p
Aras E (2018) Effects of multiple dam projects on river ecology and climate change: Çoruh River Basin, Turkey. Advances in Environmental Research 7(2):121–138
Ataman, Muhittin (2002) Leadership change: Özal leadership and restructuring in Turkish foreign policy, alternatives. Turkish Journal of International Relations 1(1):120–154
Balali M-R, Korthals J, and Keulartz M (2011) Reflexive land and water management in Iran: Linking technology, governance, and culture, Part1: Land and water management paradigms. Water Research Agriculture 24(2):73–99 (In Persian)
Bazza M and Najib R (2003) Towards improved water demand management in agriculture in the Syrian Arab Republic. First National Symposium on Management and Rationalization of Water Resources Use in Agriculture. Damascus, Syria: University of Damascus, 1–22
Campana ME, Vener BB, and Lee BS (2012) Hydrostrategy, hydropolitics, and security in the Kura-Araks Basin of the South Caucasus. Journal of Contemporary Water Research & Education 149(1):22–32
Conker A (2018) Understanding Turkish water nationalism and its role in the historical hydraulic development of Turkey. The Journal of Nationalism and Ethnicity ISSN:. Taylor & Francis 46(5):877–891
Conker A and Hussein H (2019) Hydraulic mission at home, hydraulic mission abroad? Examining Turkey’s regional ‘Pax-Aquarum’ and its limits. Sustainability 11(1):1–20
Cullather N (2002) Damming Afghanistan: Modernization in a buffer state. The Journal of American History 89(2):512–537
Daily M (1987) Fırat’ın suyunu çok ucuza sattın (You have sold the waters of the euphrates cheaply), Milliyet Daily. July 17
Daneshnia F, Nazarpoor D, and Salimi A (2015) Understanding Turkish new foreign policy in the framework of Ahmet Davutoglu’s Strategic depth doctrine. International Relations Research 5(17):169–200 (In Persian)
DAP (2020) DAP bolge kalkinma idaresi baskanligi. Sanayi ve Teknoloji Bakanliği, Sanayi ve Teknoloji Bakanliği, http://www.dap.gov.tr/
Darama Y and Seyrek K (2016) Determination of watershed boundaries in Turkey by GIS based hydrological river basin coding. Journal of Water Resource and Protection 8(11):965–981
DOKAP (2019) Estern black sea project rejional development administration (DOKAP). Sanayi ve Teknoloji Bakanliği, https://www.dokap.gov.tr/
Dinar A and Getachew S N (2013) “Distributional considerations of international water resources under externality: The case of Ethiopia, Sudan and Egypt on the Blue Nile”. Water Resources and Economics 2(3):1–16
ESCWA and BGR (2013) Inventory of shared water resources in Western Asia. New York, NY. Available at: https://waterinventory.org
Fasihi Harandi M (1395) Damming; Engineering as oscar or golden raspberry. Eastern Newspaper, 3, (In Persian)
Forughi A, Najafi D, and Masoudnia H (2012) Impact of Iran’s nuclear program, on Turkey's national security (in light of the theory of balance of power). Strategic Rssearch on Social Problems in Iran University of Isfahan 1(2):69–84 (In Persian)
Ghoreishy SZ, Mianabadi H, and Mousavi Shafaee SM (2019) The role of power in water diplomacy. Iran-Water Resources Research 15(2):242–264 (In Persian)
Grigg NS (2019) IWRM and the nexus approach: Versatile concepts for water resources education. Journal of Contemporary Water Research & Education 166(1):24–34
Gruen G (2007) Turkish water exports: A model for regional cooperation in the development of water resources. In: Shuval H and Dweik H (eds) Water Resources in the Middle East. Springer Berlin Heidelberg New York, 157–162
Gupta J and Pahl-Wostl C (2013) Global water governance in the context of global and multilevel governance: Its Need, Form, and Challenges. Ecology and Society 18(4):1–10
Gürer Ý and Ülger M (2007) Manavgat river water: A limited alternative water resource for domestic use in the Middle East. In: Shuval H and Dweik H (eds) Water resources in the Middle East. Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 175–184
Haftendorn H (2000) Water and international conflict. Third World Quarterly 21(1):51–68
Hammond M (2013) The grand ethiopian renaissance dam and the Blue Nile: Implications for transboundary water governance. Global Water Forum
Hussein M (2020) Vision 2023: Turkey and the post-Ottoman anniversary. Latest News, https://www.middleeastmonitor.com/20180212-vision-2023-turkey-and-the-post-ottoman-anniversary/
Ibrahim G and Sonmez B (2002) Water issues among the riparian states of Euphrates and Tigris transboundary rivers. In: Castelein S (ed) From Conflict to Co-operation in International Water Resources Management: Challenges and Opportunities. Delft, The Netherlands: UNESCO., 278–286
Iyob B (2010) Resilience and adaptability of transboundary rivers: The principle of equitable distribution of benefits and the institutional capacity of the Nile Basin. Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, USA, Oregon State University
Jaggers K (1992) War and the three faces of power: War making and state making in Europe and the Americas. Comparative Political Studies 25(1):26–62
Juvonen H (2015) Nexus for what ? Challenges and opportunities in applying the water-energy-food nexus. Master Thesis, Aalto University, Finland
Kaika M (2006) Dams as symbols of modernization: The urbanization of nature between geographical imagination and materiality. Association of American Geographers 96(May 2005):276–301
Kankal M, Nacar S, and Uzlu E (2016) Status of hydropower and water resources in the Southeastern Anatolia Project (GAP) of Turkey. Energy Reports 2:123–128. Available at: http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S2352484716300166
Kaya I (1998) The Euphrates-Tigris basin: An overview and opportunities for cooperation under international law. Conflict Resolution and Transboundary Water Resources 44:1–10, Available at: https://ag.arizona.edu/OALS/ALN/aln44/kaya.html
Kerisel J (2001) The Nile and its Masters: Past, present, future: Source of hope and anger. CRC Press
Klaphake A and Kramer A (2011) Kura-Aras river basin: Burgeoning transboundary water issues. In: Kibaroglu A, Kramer A, and Scheumann W (eds) Turkey’s water policy. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg 263–275.
Klaphake A and Scheumann W (2011) Coruh river basin: Hydropower development and transboundary cooperation. In: Kramer A, Kibaroglu A and Scheumann W (eds) Turkey’s Water Policy. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg 251–261
Kliot N (1994) Water resources and conflict in the Middle East. Progress in Human Geography, London: Routledge.512p
Koolaee E, Hariri R, and Asadikia B (2016) Kurdish question and its impact on Iran-Turkey relations. Geopolitics Quarterly 12(43):1–27 (In Persian)
KOP (2016) KOP bolge kalkinma idaresi baskanligi. Turkey Kop Regional Development Administration, http://www.kop.gov.tr/
Kouzehgar-Kaleji V (2019) Political-economic considerations of Tajikistan’s Rogun dam and power plant. Eastern Iran, 3 (In Persian)
Kraak E (2012) Diverging discourses on the Syr Darya. Geography, Environment, Sustainability 5(2):36–50
Kramer A and Schellig A (2011) Meric river basin: Transboundary water cooperation at the border between the EU and Turkey. In: Kibaroglu A, Kramer A, and Scheumann W (eds) Turkey’s Water Policy, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 229–249
Ludwig  F and et al. (2016) “Perspectives on climate change impacts and water security”. In Handbook on Water Security, eds. Claudia Pahl-Wostl, Anik Bhaduri, and Joyeeta Gupta. Edwards Elgar Publishing, Cheltenham, UK, 139–160
Mccaffrey S (1996) The harmon doctrine one hundred years later: Buried, not praised. Natural Resources Journal 36(3, Part 2):549–590
Menga F (2015) Building a nation through a dam: The case of Rogun in Tajikistan. Nationalities Papers 43(3):479–494
Menga F (2016) Domestic and international dimensions of transboundary water politics. Water Alternatives 9(3):704–723
Mianabadi H (2014) Political, security, and legal considerations in managing border rivers. International Relations Research  3(9):203–233 (In Persian)
Mianabadi H (2016) Hydropolitics and conflict management in transboundary river basins. Ph.D. Thesis, Delft University of Technology
Mianabadi H and Amini A (2019) Complexity of water, politics, and environment in the euphrates and tigris river basins. Geopolitics 15(54):54-86 (In Persian)
Molle F (2009) River-basin planning and management: The social life of a concept. Geoforum, Pergamon 40(3):484–494
Molle F, Mollinga PP, and Wester P (2009) Hydraulic bureaucracies and the hydraulic mission: Flows of water, flows of power. Water Alternatives 2(3):328–349
Mousavi Shafaie SM and Emerald Z (1396) Geopolitics of gas and Turkish intervention in Syria. Strategic Policy Research 6(22):147–175 (In Persian)
McCracken M, Peters L E R, and Wolf A T (2018) “Megatrends in shared waters in 2030 and beyond”. In Assessing Global Water Megatrends, ed. Rohner P Biswas A., Tortajada C. Water Resources Development and Management. Springer, Singapore, 105–23
Michel D and Pandya A (2009) Troubled waters: Climate change, hydropolitics, and transboundary resources. Stimson Center Press, Washington DC, USA.
Milly P C D et al. (2008) “Stationarity Is Dead: Whither Water Management?” Science 319(5863):573–574
Nagheeby M (2014) Water has become Turkey’s playing tool in the region. Iran Diplomacy, http://www.irdiplomacy.ir/fa (In Persian)
Nagheeby M and Warner J (2018) The geopolitical overlay of the hydropolitics of the Harirud. International Environmental Agreements: Politics, Law and Economics. Springer Netherlands 18(6):839–860
Nawaz S (2009) Ghani, Ashraf-transcript, Atlantic council, Washington, D.C., https://www.atlanticcouncil.org/commentary/transcript/ghani-ashraf-4-22-2009-transcript/
Orlowska I (2013) Forging a nation: the Ethiopian millennium celebration and the multiethnic state. Nations and Nationalism 19(2):296–316
Özkar (2015) Gap, Kop, Dap Ve Tragep İle 10,8 Milyar Dolar Katlı Sağlanacak (With Gap, Kop, Dap And Tragep 10.8 Billion Dollars Will Be Provided). www.kamugundemi.com. Available at: https://www.kamugundemi.com/gundem/gap-kop-dap-ve-tragep-ile-108-milyar-dolar-katli-saglanacak-h44373.html
Patterson K (2008) Who owns transnational water? Available at: https://www.stimson.org/2008/who-owns-transnational-water/
Rende M (2007) Water transfer from Turkey to water-stressed countries in the Middle East. In: Shuval H and Dweik H (eds) Water resources in the Middle East. Springer Berlin Heidelberg New 165–175
Rostami F and Naderi M (2015) Water shortage crises and rupture in national security. International Relations Research 5(15):161–192 (In Persian)
Ruettinger L, Morin A, Houdret A, Taenzler D, and Clementine B (2011) Water, crisis and climate change assessment framework. Adelphi, 54p
Rusca M, Dos Santos T, Menga F, Mirumachi N, Schwartz K, and Hordijk M (2018) Space, state-building and the hydraulic mission: Crafting the Mozambican State. Environment and Planning C: Politics and Space 1–21
Scheumann W, Sagsen I, and Tereci E (2011) Orontes river basin: Downstream challenges and prospects for cooperation. In: Kramer A, Kibaroglu A, and Scheumann W (eds) Turkey’s Water Policy. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg 301–312
Selby J (2005) Oil and water: The contrasting anatomies of resource conflicts. Government and Opposition 40(2):200–224
Shamout N and Lahn G (2015) The euphrates in crisis channels of cooperation for a threatened river. Chatham House. Available at: https://www.chathamhouse.org/sites/files/chathamhouse/field/field_document/20150413Euphrates_0.pdf
Skoulikaris C and Zafirakou A (2019) River basin management plans as a tool for sustainable transboundary river basins’ management. Environmental Science and Pollution Research 26(15):14835–14848
Sputnik (2017) The third power turbine has been installed at the Kajaki Dam. Available at: https://af.sputniknews.com/afghan/201701241097926/
Swyngedouw E (1999) Modernity and hybridity: nature, regeneracionismo, and the production of the Spanish waterscape, 1890-1930. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 89(3):443–465
Taghdisi A and Hedayatimoghaddam Z (2012) Comparative study of functionalism school in geography with other geographic schools. Scientific- Research Quarterly of Geographical Data 20(80):7–12 (In Persian)
TCMB (2015) Faaliyet Raporu 2015. Turkiye Cumhuriyet Merkez Bankasi
TCTOB (2013) Bati karadeniz gelisim Projesi BAKGEP. Republic of Turkey Ministry of Forestry and Water Affairs, Available at: http://sgb.ormansu.gov.tr/sgbtest/Files/GEP/BAKGEP.pdf
TCTOB (2016a) Kakkinmanin anahtari TRAGEP trakya gelisim Projesi (2013-2017). Republic of Turkey Ministry of Forestry and Water Affairs, Available at: http://ergene.ormansu.gov.tr/ergene2/Files/TRAGEP.pdf
TCTOB (2016c) MarMara gelisim projesi (MarMaraGEP). Republic of Turkey Ministry of Forestry and Water Affairs, Available at: http://sgb.ormansu.gov.tr/sgbtest/Files/GEP/MARMARAGEP.pdf
TCTOB (2016b) Akdeniz gelisim projesi (AkdenizGEP). Republic of Turkey Ministry of Forestry and Water Affairs
Thomas V and Varzi MM (2015) A legal licence for an ecological disaster: the inadequacies of the 1973 Helmand/Hirmand water treaty for sustainable transboundary water resources development. International Journal of Water Resources Development 31(4):499–518
Tigrek S and Kibaroglu A (2011) Strategic role of water resources for Turkey. In: Kibaroglu A, Kramer A and Scheumann W (eds) Turkey’s Water Policy. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg 27–42
Svendsen M and Nana K (2009) Water and adaptation to climate change: Consequences for developing countries. GTZ Press, Berlin
TOB (2015) Bereketin ADI EGEGEP, EGE gelisim projesi (2015-2019). Turkey Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, Available at: https://drive.google.com/file/d/1oJtda2Zh_hvkZQnaiGB1IKuFqDsqbta_/view
Tufekci Z (2018) Turkish dam won’t impact Iraq’s water supply: Diplomat. Anadolu Agency. Available at: https://www.aa.com.tr/en/todays-headlines/turkish-dam-won-t-impact-iraq-s-water-supply-diplomat/1167403
Turan I (2011) The water dimension in Turkish foreign policy. In: Kibaroglu A, Kramer A, and Scheumann W (eds) Turkey’s water policy. Berlin Heidelberg: Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg 179–195
Visage S Le, Kuper M, Venot J-P, Yercan M, and Atış E (2018) Pursuing the state’s hydraulic mission in a context of private groundwater use in the Izmir Province, Turkey. Water Alternatives 11(2):421–438
Wadsom (2016) Signing of agreement on development of Kajaki dam with Turkish company. Available at: https://dari.wadsam.com
Wester P (2009) Capturing the waters: The hydraulic mission in the Lerma–Chapala Basin, Mexico (1876–1976). Water Hist 1(1):9–29
Yildiz D (2018) The Peece Water Pipeline and innovative hydro diplomacy. World Water Diplomacy & Science News 3(4):1–9
Zeitoun M (2007) Palestinian-Israeli water: Secure or violated securitization, opportunitisation and viola tion along the Jordan River. In: Shuval H and Dweik H (eds) Water Resources in the Middle East. Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 213–225
Zeitoun M, Mirumachi N, Warner J, Kirkegaard M, and Cascao A (2019) Analysis for water conflict transformation. Water International, Routledge 3(3):1–20