بکارگیری ارزیابی چرخه حیات (LCA) در مقایسه اثرات محیط زیستی سامانه‌های نمک‌زدایی اسمز معکوس با آبگیری مستقیم از دریا و چاه‌های ساحلی در سامانه های نمک زدایی چابهار و کنگان

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری/ گروه محیط زیست، واحد رودهن، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، رودهن، ایران.

2 استادیار/ گروه محیط زیست، واحد رودهن، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، رودهن، ایران.

چکیده

رشد روز افزون تقاضا برای آب و محدودیت دسترسی به منابع آب شیرین منجر به استفاده از نمک‌زدایی آب دریا در کشورهای زیادی، به‌خصوص در مناطق خشک و نیمه خشک گردیده است. با توجه به اهمیت اثرات محیط زیستی سامانه‌های نمک‌زدایی، تحقیق حاضر با هدف مقایسه اثرات محیط زیستی سامانه‌های نمک‌زدایی چابهار و کنگان انجام پذیرفت. روش نمک‌زدایی در هر دو سامانه، اسمز معکوس بوده و در سامانه کنگان روش تامین آب از چاه‌های ساحلی و به‌طور غیرمستقیم از آب خلیج فارس و در چابهار به‌طور مستقیم از آب دریای عمان می‌باشد. در این تحقیق برای بررسی اثرات زیست محیطی از روش ارزیابی چرخه حیات (LCA) استفاده گردید. پس از تهیه لیست کاملی از موجودی مواد و انرژی در تمامی مراحل تولید آب شیرین، با بهره‌گیری از روش ارزیابیIMPACT 2002+ نسخه(2.15) و نرم افزار SimaPro9 اثرات محیط زیستی تمامی مراحل فرآیند نمک‌زدایی آب دریا بر طبقات مختلف اثر مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. بر اساس نتایج به دست آمده، بیشترین اثر در هر دو سامانه مربوط به تغییرات اقلیمی و کاهش منابع اولیه بود. به طوری که به ازای تولید 1 مترمکعب آب شیرین در سامانه کنگان و چابهار به ترتیب معادل 224/3 و 627/3 کیلوگرم دی اکسیدکربن تولید و 035/55 و 928/61 مگاژول کاهش در منابع اولیه ایجاد می‌شود. اثرات محیط زیستی در سامانه کنگان به صورت معنی‌داری کمتر از سامانه چابهار است. لذا به‌نظر می‌رسد، استفاده از چاه‌های ساحلی برای تامین آب ورودی در سامانه‌های نمک‌زدایی مناسب‌تر می‌باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) in Comparing the Environmental Impacts of Seawater Reverse Osmosis Desalination Plants with Open Intake and Beach Wells Intake in Chabahar and Kangan Desalination Plants

نویسندگان [English]

  • Morteza Bakhshayesh 1
  • Maryam Farahani 2
  • Azita Behbahaninia 2
1 Ph.D Student, Environment Department, Roudehen Branch, Islamic Azad University, Roudehen, Iran.
2 Assistant Professor, Environment Department, Roudehen Branch, Islamic Azad University, Roudehen, Iran
چکیده [English]

Increasing water demand and limitation of accessing to freshwater resources have been caused using of seawater desalination in most countries, especially arid and semiarid regions. Duo to the importance of environmental impacts of desalination plants, the present study carried out to comparing the environmental impacts of Chabahar and Kangan desalination plants. Desalting methods is reverse osmosis in both plants. The extraction of the raw seawater in the Kangan plant is beach well intake which supplying indirectly from Persian Gulf and in Chabahar plant is open intake and supplying directly from Oman Seawater. Therefore, the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) method was used. After preparing a complete inventory of materials and energy at all stages of freshwater production, the environmental impacts of all seawater desalting processes on different environmental impact classes were evaluated using Impact 2002+ version (2.15) and SimaPro9 software. After preparing a complete inventory of materials and energy at all stages of freshwater production, the environmental impacts of all seawater desalting processes on different environmental impact categories were evaluated by using IMPACT 2002+ version (2.15) and SimaPro9 software. According to the results, the greatest impact on both plants were climate change and reduction of primary resources. So that, equivalent 3.224 and 3.627 Kg carbon dioxide has been released and reduced 55.035 and 61.928 MJ in primary sources, in Kangan and Chabahar plants, respectively, as producing 1 m3 of desalinated water. Therefore, it seems that using beach wells intake to extracting seawater in desalination plants is more appropriate.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • life cycle assessment
  • Oman Sea
  • Persian Gulf
  • Desalination
  • environmental impacts
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