مدلسازی اقدامات مدیریتی در کنترل افت سطح تراز آب زیرزمینی (دشت هشتگرد، استان البرز)

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار/ گروه فناوری‌های محیط زیست، پژوهشکده علوم محیطی، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی، تهران، ایران.

2 دانش آموخته کارشناسی ارشد/ آلاینده های محیط زیست، پژوهشکده علوم محیطی، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی، تهران، ایران.

3 استادیار/ گروه مهندسی منابع آب، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران

چکیده

افزایش استحصال از آب‌های زیرزمینی در چند دهه اخیر موجب شده است، سطح تراز آب زیرزمینی استان البرز و بخصوص دشت هشتگرد دچار افت شدیدی شود. از اینرو، با توجه به اهمیت این ذخایر ارزشمند، باید راهبردهای مناسبی در جهت پایداری این منابع مورد بررسی قرار گیرد. در این راستا، شبیه‌سازی عددی MODFLOW این محدوده، در دو حالت ماندگار و غیرماندگار برای دوره سه ساله (1391 تا 1393)، واسنجی و برای یک دوره یک ساله (1394)، صحت‌سنجی شد. سپس اثرات اجرای طرح احیاء و تعادل‌بخشی منابع آب زیرزمینی کشور در دشت هشتگرد ارزیابی گردید و حرکت ذرات آلاینده (نیترات و سولفات) در این طرح با استفاده از MODPATH، بررسی شد. نتایج نشان دادند، در صورتی که وضع موجود ادامه یابد، ذخیره آبخوان به طور متوسط 1 میلیون مترمکعب در سال کاهش پیدا می‌کند. همچنین از میان اقدامات مدیریتی، به ترتیب دستورالعمل انسداد چاه‌های غیرمجاز و طرحی که با یک محدودیت تدریجی در استحصال از آب زیرزمینی همراه می‌باشد، موجب بهبود ذخیره آبخوان به میزان 8/8 و 8/6 میلیون مترمکعب در سال می‌گردد. نتایج حاصل از MODPATH نیز نشان دادند که در صورت اجرای طرح‌هایی نظیر سناریو 7 و 9، حرکت ذرات نیترات (با غلظت 30 تا 70 میلی‌گرم بر لیتر) در ناحیه واقع در شهر هشتگرد، محدود خواهد شد. می‌توان نتیجه گرفت، با وجود اینکه محدودیت کامل استخراج چاه‌های بهره‌برداری غیرمجاز، بهترین نتیجه ممکن را در راستای اهداف احیاء و تعادل‌بخشی آبخوان داشته است، اما ممکن است محدودیت تدریجی استخراج چاه‌های بهره‌برداری از مقبولیت و قابلیت اجرای بیشتری برخوردار باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Modeling of management measures taken to control groundwater level depletion (Hashtgerd plain- Alborz province)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Afsaneh Shahbazi 1
  • Farshid Safari 2
  • Hamed Ketabchi 3
1 Associate Professor, Department of Environmental Pollutants Research, Environmental Sciences Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, G.C., Tehran, Iran
2 M.Sc., Graduated of environmental pollutants, Department of Environmental Pollutants Research, Environmental Sciences Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, G.C., Tehran, Iran
3 Assistant Professor, Water Resources Engineering Department, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran
چکیده [English]

Increased groundwater extraction has caused severe depletion (On average 65 cm/year) in the groundwater resources of Alborz province and especially Hashtgerd Plain in over the past few decades. Hence, considering the importance of these valuable resources, appropriate strategies should be considered for the sustainability of this resources. In order to realize these measures, the MODFLOW numerical simulation was calibrated in steady-state and transient conditions for three years (2013 to 2014) and validated for a one-year period (2015). Then, the influence of the implementation of the Iran Aquifer Restoration plan in Hashtgerd plain was evaluated and pollutant particle movement (Nitrate and Sulfate) in this scheme were investigated using MODPATH. According to the results, if the current conditions continued, the aquifer storage would decrease by an average of 1 MCM/year. Also from the management measures, the guidelines for restriction of unlicensed utilization wells and the step-by-step restriction of groundwater extraction cause improving the aquifer storage about 8.8 and 6.8 MCM/year. The results of the MODPATH also showed that if the plans such as scenarios 7 and 9 were implemented, the movement of nitrate particles (at concentrations of 30 to 70 mg/l) will be limited in the Hashtgerd city area. The study concludes, although the complete restriction of unlicensed utilization wells may work best in line with the objectives of the Aquifer Restoration Plan, the step-by-step restriction of utilization wells may be more acceptable and applicable.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Management measures
  • Hashtgerd plain
  • numerical simulation
  • Aquifer restoration plan
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